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状态图

State Diagram

State diagrams are used to give an abstract description of the behavior of a system. This behavior is represented as a series of events that can occur in one or more possible states.

简单状态

使用([*])开始和结束状态图。

使用-->添加箭头。

@startuml

[*] --> State1
State1 --> [*]
State1 : this is a string
State1 : this is another string

State1 -> State2
State2 --> [*]

@enduml

Simple State

You can use [*] for the starting point and ending point of the state diagram.

Use --> for arrows.

@startuml

[*] --> State1
State1 --> [*]
State1 : this is a string
State1 : this is another string

State1 -> State2
State2 --> [*]

@enduml

Change state rendering

You can use hide empty description to render state as simple box.

@startuml
hide empty description
[*] --> State1
State1 --> [*]
State1 : this is a string
State1 : this is another string

State1 -> State2
State2 --> [*]
@enduml

合成状态

一个状态也可能是合成的,必须使用关键字state和花括号来定义合成状态。

@startuml
scale 350 width
[*] --> NotShooting

state NotShooting {
  [*] --> Idle
  Idle --> Configuring : EvConfig
  Configuring --> Idle : EvConfig
}

state Configuring {
  [*] --> NewValueSelection
  NewValueSelection --> NewValuePreview : EvNewValue
  NewValuePreview --> NewValueSelection : EvNewValueRejected
  NewValuePreview --> NewValueSelection : EvNewValueSaved

  state NewValuePreview {
     State1 -> State2
  }

}
@enduml

Composite state

A state can also be composite. You have to define it using the state keywords and brackets.

Internal sub-state

@startuml
scale 350 width
[*] --> NotShooting

state NotShooting {
  [*] --> Idle
  Idle --> Configuring : EvConfig
  Configuring --> Idle : EvConfig
}

state Configuring {
  [*] --> NewValueSelection
  NewValueSelection --> NewValuePreview : EvNewValue
  NewValuePreview --> NewValueSelection : EvNewValueRejected
  NewValuePreview --> NewValueSelection : EvNewValueSaved

  state NewValuePreview {
     State1 -> State2
  }

}
@enduml

Sub-state to sub-state

@startuml
state A {
  state X {
  }
  state Y {
  }
}
 
state B {
  state Z {
  }
}

X --> Z
Z --> Y
@enduml

[Ref. QA-3300]

长名字

也可以使用关键字state定义长名字状态。

@startuml
scale 600 width

[*] -> State1
State1 --> State2 : Succeeded
State1 --> [*] : Aborted
State2 --> State3 : Succeeded
State2 --> [*] : Aborted
state State3 {
  state "Accumulate Enough Data\nLong State Name" as long1
  long1 : Just a test
  [*] --> long1
  long1 --> long1 : New Data
  long1 --> ProcessData : Enough Data
}
State3 --> State3 : Failed
State3 --> [*] : Succeeded / Save Result
State3 --> [*] : Aborted

@enduml

Long name

You can also use the state keyword to use long description for states.

@startuml
scale 600 width

[*] -> State1
State1 --> State2 : Succeeded
State1 --> [*] : Aborted
State2 --> State3 : Succeeded
State2 --> [*] : Aborted
state State3 {
  state "Accumulate Enough Data\nLong State Name" as long1
  long1 : Just a test
  [*] --> long1
  long1 --> long1 : New Data
  long1 --> ProcessData : Enough Data
}
State3 --> State3 : Failed
State3 --> [*] : Succeeded / Save Result
State3 --> [*] : Aborted

@enduml

History [[H], [H*]]

You can use [H] for the history and [H*] for the deep history of a substate.

@startuml
[*] -> State1
State1 --> State2 : Succeeded
State1 --> [*] : Aborted
State2 --> State3 : Succeeded
State2 --> [*] : Aborted
state State3 {
  state "Accumulate Enough Data" as long1
  long1 : Just a test
  [*] --> long1
  long1 --> long1 : New Data
  long1 --> ProcessData : Enough Data
  State2 --> [H]: Resume
}
State3 --> State2 : Pause
State2 --> State3[H*]: DeepResume
State3 --> State3 : Failed
State3 --> [*] : Succeeded / Save Result
State3 --> [*] : Aborted
@enduml

Fork [fork, join]

You can also fork and join using the <<fork>> and <<join>> stereotypes.

@startuml

state fork_state <<fork>>
[*] --> fork_state
fork_state --> State2
fork_state --> State3

state join_state <<join>>
State2 --> join_state
State3 --> join_state
join_state --> State4
State4 --> [*]

@enduml

并发状态

-- or ||作为分隔符来合成并发状态。

@startuml
[*] --> Active

state Active {
  [*] -> NumLockOff
  NumLockOff --> NumLockOn : EvNumLockPressed
  NumLockOn --> NumLockOff : EvNumLockPressed
  --
  [*] -> CapsLockOff
  CapsLockOff --> CapsLockOn : EvCapsLockPressed
  CapsLockOn --> CapsLockOff : EvCapsLockPressed
  --
  [*] -> ScrollLockOff
  ScrollLockOff --> ScrollLockOn : EvCapsLockPressed
  ScrollLockOn --> ScrollLockOff : EvCapsLockPressed
}

@enduml

Concurrent state [--, ||]

You can define concurrent state into a composite state using either -- or || symbol as separator.

Horizontal separator --

@startuml
[*] --> Active

state Active {
  [*] -> NumLockOff
  NumLockOff --> NumLockOn : EvNumLockPressed
  NumLockOn --> NumLockOff : EvNumLockPressed
  --
  [*] -> CapsLockOff
  CapsLockOff --> CapsLockOn : EvCapsLockPressed
  CapsLockOn --> CapsLockOff : EvCapsLockPressed
  --
  [*] -> ScrollLockOff
  ScrollLockOff --> ScrollLockOn : EvCapsLockPressed
  ScrollLockOn --> ScrollLockOff : EvCapsLockPressed
}

@enduml

Vertical separator ||

@startuml
[*] --> Active

state Active {
  [*] -> NumLockOff
  NumLockOff --> NumLockOn : EvNumLockPressed
  NumLockOn --> NumLockOff : EvNumLockPressed
  ||
  [*] -> CapsLockOff
  CapsLockOff --> CapsLockOn : EvCapsLockPressed
  CapsLockOn --> CapsLockOff : EvCapsLockPressed
  ||
  [*] -> ScrollLockOff
  ScrollLockOff --> ScrollLockOn : EvCapsLockPressed
  ScrollLockOn --> ScrollLockOff : EvCapsLockPressed
}

@enduml

Conditional [choice]

The stereotype <<choice>> can be used to use conditional state.

@startuml
state "Req(Id)" as ReqId <<sdlreceive>>
state "Minor(Id)" as MinorId
state "Major(Id)" as MajorId
 
state c <<choice>>
 
Idle --> ReqId
ReqId --> c
c --> MinorId : [Id <= 10]
c --> MajorId : [Id > 10]
@enduml

Stereotypes full example [choice, fork, join, end]

@startuml
state choice1 <<choice>>
state fork1   <<fork>>
state join2   <<join>>
state end3    <<end>>

[*]     --> choice1 : from start\nto choice
choice1 --> fork1   : from choice\nto fork
choice1 --> join2   : from choice\nto join
choice1 --> end3    : from choice\nto end

fork1   ---> State1 : from fork\nto state
fork1   --> State2  : from fork\nto state

State2  --> join2   : from state\nto join
State1  --> [*]     : from state\nto end

join2   --> [*]     : from join\nto end
@enduml

[Ref. QA-404 and QA-1159]

Point [entryPoint, exitPoint]

You can added point with <<entryPoint>> and <<exitPoint>> stereotypes:

@startuml
state Somp {
  state entry1 <<entryPoint>>
  state entry2 <<entryPoint>>
  state sin
  entry1 --> sin
  entry2 -> sin
  sin -> sin2
  sin2 --> exitA <<exitPoint>>
}

[*] --> entry1
exitA --> Foo
Foo1 -> entry2
@enduml

Pin [inputPin, outputPin]

You can added pin with <<inputPin>> and <<outputPin>> stereotypes:

@startuml
state Somp {
  state entry1 <<inputPin>>
  state entry2 <<inputPin>>
  state sin
  entry1 --> sin
  entry2 -> sin
  sin -> sin2
  sin2 --> exitA <<outputPin>>
}

[*] --> entry1
exitA --> Foo
Foo1 -> entry2
@enduml

[Ref. QA-4309]

Expansion [expansionInput, expansionOutput]

You can added expansion with <<expansionInput>> and <<expansionOutput>> stereotypes:

@startuml
state Somp {
  state entry1 <<expansionInput>>
  state entry2 <<expansionInput>>
  state sin
  entry1 --> sin
  entry2 -> sin
  sin -> sin2
  sin2 --> exitA <<expansionOutput>>
}

[*] --> entry1
exitA --> Foo
Foo1 -> entry2
@enduml

[Ref. QA-4309]

箭头方向

使用->定义水平箭头,也可以使用下列格式强制设置箭头方向:
  • -down-> (default arrow)
  • -right-> or ->
  • -left->
  • -up->

@startuml

[*] -up-> First
First -right-> Second
Second --> Third
Third -left-> Last

@enduml

可以用首字母缩写或者开始的两个字母定义方向(如, -d--down--do-是完全等价的)。

请不要滥用这些功能,Graphviz不喜欢这样。

Arrow direction

You can use -> for horizontal arrows. It is possible to force arrow's direction using the following syntax:
  • -down-> or -->
  • -right-> or -> (default arrow)
  • -left->
  • -up->

@startuml

[*] -up-> First
First -right-> Second
Second --> Third
Third -left-> Last

@enduml

You can shorten the arrow definition by using only the first character of the direction (for example, -d- instead of -down-) or the two first characters (-do-).

Please note that you should not abuse this functionality : Graphviz gives usually good results without tweaking.

Change line color and style

You can change line color and/or line style.

@startuml
State S1
State S2
S1 -[#DD00AA]-> S2
S1 -left[#yellow]-> S3
S1 -up[#red,dashed]-> S4
S1 -right[dotted,#blue]-> S5

X1 -[dashed]-> X2
Z1 -[dotted]-> Z2
Y1 -[#blue,bold]-> Y2
@enduml

[Ref. Incubation: Change line color in state diagrams]

注释

可以用 note left of, note right of, note top of, note bottom of 关键字来定义注释。

还可以定义多行注释。

@startuml

[*] --> Active
Active --> Inactive

note left of Active : this is a short\nnote

note right of Inactive
  A note can also
  be defined on
  several lines
end note

@enduml

以及浮动注释。

@startuml

state foo
note "This is a floating note" as N1

@enduml

Note

You can also define notes using note left of, note right of, note top of, note bottom of keywords.

You can also define notes on several lines.

@startuml

[*] --> Active
Active --> Inactive

note left of Active : this is a short\nnote

note right of Inactive
  A note can also
  be defined on
  several lines
end note

@enduml

You can also have floating notes.

@startuml

state foo
note "This is a floating note" as N1

@enduml

Note on link

You can put notes on state-transition or link, with note on link keyword.

@startuml
[*] -> State1
State1 --> State2
note on link 
  this is a state-transition note 
end note
@enduml

更多注释

可以在合成状态中放置注释。

@startuml

[*] --> NotShooting

state "Not Shooting State" as NotShooting {
  state "Idle mode" as Idle
  state "Configuring mode" as Configuring
  [*] --> Idle
  Idle --> Configuring : EvConfig
  Configuring --> Idle : EvConfig
}

note right of NotShooting : This is a note on a composite state

@enduml

More in notes

You can put notes on composite states.

@startuml

[*] --> NotShooting

state "Not Shooting State" as NotShooting {
  state "Idle mode" as Idle
  state "Configuring mode" as Configuring
  [*] --> Idle
  Idle --> Configuring : EvConfig
  Configuring --> Idle : EvConfig
}

note right of NotShooting : This is a note on a composite state

@enduml

Inline color

@startuml
state CurrentSite #pink {
    state HardwareSetup #lightblue {
       state Site #brown
        Site -[hidden]-> Controller
        Controller -[hidden]-> Devices
    }
    state PresentationSetup{
        Groups -[hidden]-> PlansAndGraphics
    }
    state Trends #FFFF77
    state Schedule #magenta
    state AlarmSupression
}
@enduml

[Ref. QA-1812]

显示参数

skinparam改变字体和颜色。

可以在如下场景中使用:

还可以为状态的构造类型指定特殊的字体和颜色。

@startuml
skinparam backgroundColor LightYellow
skinparam state {
  StartColor MediumBlue
  EndColor Red
  BackgroundColor Peru
  BackgroundColor<<Warning>> Olive
  BorderColor Gray
  FontName Impact
}

[*] --> NotShooting

state "Not Shooting State" as NotShooting {
  state "Idle mode" as Idle <<Warning>>
  state "Configuring mode" as Configuring
  [*] --> Idle
  Idle --> Configuring : EvConfig
  Configuring --> Idle : EvConfig
}

NotShooting --> [*]
@enduml

WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

Skinparam

You can use the skinparam command to change colors and fonts for the drawing.

You can use this command : You can define specific color and fonts for stereotyped states.

@startuml
skinparam backgroundColor LightYellow
skinparam state {
  StartColor MediumBlue
  EndColor Red
  BackgroundColor Peru
  BackgroundColor<<Warning>> Olive
  BorderColor Gray
  FontName Impact
}

[*] --> NotShooting

state "Not Shooting State" as NotShooting {
  state "Idle mode" as Idle <<Warning>>
  state "Configuring mode" as Configuring
  [*] --> Idle
  Idle --> Configuring : EvConfig
  Configuring --> Idle : EvConfig
}

NotShooting --> [*]
@enduml

Test of all specific skinparam to State Diagrams

@startuml
skinparam State {
  AttributeFontColor blue
  AttributeFontName serif
  AttributeFontSize  9
  AttributeFontStyle italic
  BackgroundColor palegreen
  BorderColor violet
  EndColor gold
  FontColor red
  FontName Sanserif
  FontSize 15
  FontStyle bold
  StartColor silver
}

state A : a a a\na
state B : b b b\nb

[*] -> A  : start
A -> B : a2b
B -> [*] : end
@enduml

Changing style

You can change style.

@startuml

<style>
stateDiagram {
  BackgroundColor Peru
  'LineColor Gray
  FontName Impact
  FontColor Red
  arrow {
    FontSize 13
    LineColor Blue
  }
}
</style>


[*] --> NotShooting

state "Not Shooting State" as NotShooting {
  state "Idle mode" as Idle <<Warning>>
  state "Configuring mode" as Configuring
  [*] --> Idle
  Idle --> Configuring : EvConfig
  Configuring --> Idle : EvConfig
}

NotShooting --> [*]
@enduml

Change state color and style (inline style)

You can change the color or style of individual state using the following notation:

  • #color ##[style]color

With background color first (#color), then line style and line color (##[style]color ).

@startuml
state FooGradient #red-green ##00FFFF
state FooDashed #red|green ##[dashed]blue {
}
state FooDotted ##[dotted]blue {
}
state FooBold ##[bold] {
}
state Foo1 ##[dotted]green {
state inner1 ##[dotted]yellow
}

state out ##[dotted]gold

state Foo2 ##[bold]green {
state inner2 ##[dotted]yellow
}
inner1 -> inner2
out -> inner2
@enduml

[Ref. QA-1487]

  • #color;line:color;line.[bold|dashed|dotted];text:color

FIXME
🚩 text:color seems not to be taken into account
FIXME

@startuml
@startuml
state FooGradient #red-green;line:00FFFF
state FooDashed #red|green;line.dashed;line:blue {
}
state FooDotted #line.dotted;line:blue {
}
state FooBold #line.bold {
}
state Foo1 #line.dotted;line:green {
state inner1 #line.dotted;line:yellow
}

state out #line.dotted;line:gold

state Foo2 #line.bold;line:green {
state inner2 #line.dotted;line:yellow
}
inner1 -> inner2
out -> inner2
@enduml
@enduml

@startuml
state s1 : s1 description
state s2 #pink;line:red;line.bold;text:red : s2 description
state s3 #palegreen;line:green;line.dashed;text:green : s3 description
state s4 #aliceblue;line:blue;line.dotted;text:blue   : s4 description
@enduml

[Adapted from QA-3770]


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