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시퀀스 다이어그램

Sequence Diagram

기본 예제

Basic examples

시퀀스 ->는 두 참여자들 사이의 메시지를 그리기 위해 사용된다. 참여자들은 명시적으로 선언하지 않아도 된다.

점선 화살표를 만들기 위해서는 -->를 사용한다.

또한 <-<--를 사용할 수 있다. 출력되는 그림은 변경되지 않지만, 가독성을 향상시키는데 사용할 수 있다. 이는 시퀀스 다이어그램에만 적용되며, 다른 다이어그램에는 다른 규칙이 적용된다.

@startuml
Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
Bob --> Alice: Authentication Response

Alice -> Bob: Another authentication Request
Alice <-- Bob: another authentication Response
@enduml

The sequence -> is used to draw a message between two participants. Participants do not have to be explicitly declared.

To have a dotted arrow, you use -->

It is also possible to use <- and <--. That does not change the drawing, but may improve readability. Note that this is only true for sequence diagrams, rules are different for the other diagrams.

@startuml
Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
Bob --> Alice: Authentication Response

Alice -> Bob: Another authentication Request
Alice <-- Bob: Another authentication Response
@enduml

참여자(participant) 선언

Declaring participant

participant 키워드를 이용하여 참여자의 순서를 바꿀 수 있다.

또한, 참여자 선언에 다음과 같은 키워드를 사용 할 수 있다.
  • actor
  • boundary
  • control
  • entity
  • database
  • collections

@startuml
actor Foo1
boundary Foo2
control Foo3
entity Foo4
database Foo5
collections Foo6
Foo1 -> Foo2 : To boundary
Foo1 -> Foo3 : To control
Foo1 -> Foo4 : To entity
Foo1 -> Foo5 : To database
Foo1 -> Foo6 : To collections

@enduml

as 키워드를 이용하여 참여자의 이름을 변경 할 수 있다.

또한, 참여자(actor, participant)의 배경 색을 변경 할 수도 있다.

@startuml
actor Bob #red
' The only difference between actor
'and participant is the drawing
participant Alice
participant "I have a really\nlong name" as L #99FF99
/' You can also declare:
   participant L as "I have a really\nlong name"  #99FF99
  '/

Alice->Bob: Authentication Request
Bob->Alice: Authentication Response
Bob->L: Log transaction
@enduml

order 키워드를 이용하여, 참여자의 출력 순서를 지정할 수 있다.

@startuml
participant Last order 30
participant Middle order 20
participant First order 10
@enduml

WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

If the keyword participant is used to declare a participant, more control on that participant is possible.

The order of declaration will be the (default) order of display.

Using these other keywords to declare participants will change the shape of the participant representation:
  • actor
  • boundary
  • control
  • entity
  • database
  • collections
  • queue

@startuml
participant Participant as Foo
actor       Actor       as Foo1
boundary    Boundary    as Foo2
control     Control     as Foo3
entity      Entity      as Foo4
database    Database    as Foo5
collections Collections as Foo6
queue       Queue       as Foo7
Foo -> Foo1 : To actor 
Foo -> Foo2 : To boundary
Foo -> Foo3 : To control
Foo -> Foo4 : To entity
Foo -> Foo5 : To database
Foo -> Foo6 : To collections
Foo -> Foo7: To queue
@enduml

Rename a participant using the as keyword.

You can also change the background color of actor or participant.

@startuml
actor Bob #red
' The only difference between actor
'and participant is the drawing
participant Alice
participant "I have a really\nlong name" as L #99FF99
/' You can also declare:
   participant L as "I have a really\nlong name"  #99FF99
  '/

Alice->Bob: Authentication Request
Bob->Alice: Authentication Response
Bob->L: Log transaction
@enduml

You can use the order keyword to customize the display order of participants.

@startuml
participant Last order 30
participant Middle order 20
participant First order 10
@enduml

참여자에서 특수문자 사용하기

Use non-letters in participants

따옴표를 사용하여 참여자를 정의할 수 있다. 그리고 "as" 키워드를 사용하여 참여자를 별칭으로 사용 할 수도 있다.

@startuml
Alice -> "Bob()" : Hello
"Bob()" -> "This is very\nlong" as Long
' You can also declare:
' "Bob()" -> Long as "This is very\nlong"
Long --> "Bob()" : ok
@enduml

You can use quotes to define participants. And you can use the as keyword to give an alias to those participants.

@startuml
Alice -> "Bob()" : Hello
"Bob()" -> "This is very\nlong" as Long
' You can also declare:
' "Bob()" -> Long as "This is very\nlong"
Long --> "Bob()" : ok
@enduml

자신에게 메시지 보내기

Message to Self

참여자는 자기 자신에게 메시지를 보낼 수 있다.

\n 을 이용해서 여러 줄로 쓰는 것도 가능하다

@startuml
Alice->Alice: This is a signal to self.\nIt also demonstrates\nmultiline \ntext
@enduml

*[Ref. [QA-1361](https://forum.plantuml.net/1361)]*
WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

A participant can send a message to itself.

It is also possible to have multi-line using \n.

@startuml
Alice -> Alice: This is a signal to self.\nIt also demonstrates\nmultiline \ntext
@enduml

@startuml
Alice <- Alice: This is a signal to self.\nIt also demonstrates\nmultiline \ntext
@enduml

[Ref. QA-1361]

텍스트 정렬

Text alignment

응답 메세지 텍스트를 화살표 아래에 배치하기

skinparam responseMessageBelowArrow true 명령을 이용하여 응답 메세지 텍스트를 화살표 하단에 배치할 수 있습니다.

@startuml
skinparam responseMessageBelowArrow true
Bob -> Alice : hello
Alice -> Bob : ok
@enduml

skinparam에 대하여 자세히 알아보기
WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

Text alignment on arrows can be set to left, right or center using skinparam sequenceMessageAlign.

You can also use direction or reverseDirection to align text depending on arrow direction. Further details and examples of this are available on the skinparam page.

@startuml
skinparam sequenceMessageAlign right
Bob -> Alice : Request
Alice -> Bob : Response
@enduml

Text of response message below the arrow

You can put the text of the response message below the arrow, with the skinparam responseMessageBelowArrow true command.

@startuml
skinparam responseMessageBelowArrow true
Bob -> Alice : hello
Alice -> Bob : ok
@enduml

화살표 스타일 변경

Change arrow style

다음 방법으로 화살표 스타일을 바꿀 수 있다 :
  • 끝 부분에 x를 추가하여 메시지가 전달되지 않았음을 표시 할 수 있다.
  • <> 대신에 \/ 를 사용해서
  • 아래쪽이나 위쪽 화살표만 표시한다.
  • {$>$}를 두번 사용하여 화살표 모양을 얇게 표시 할 수 있다. (예. >>)
  • - 대신 -- 를 사용해서 점선 화살표를 표시한다.
  • 화살표 다음에 "o" 추가도 가능하다.
  • 양쪽 끝에 화살표 추가도 가능하다.

@startuml
Bob ->x Alice
Bob -> Alice
Bob ->> Alice
Bob -\ Alice
Bob \\- Alice
Bob //-- Alice

Bob ->o Alice
Bob o\\-- Alice

Bob <-> Alice
Bob <->o Alice
@enduml

You can change arrow style by several ways:
  • add a final x to denote a lost message
  • use \ or / instead of < or > to have only the bottom or top part of the arrow
  • repeat the arrow head (for example, >> or //) head to have a thin drawing
  • use -- instead of - to have a dotted arrow
  • add a final "o" at arrow head
  • use bidirectional arrow <->

@startuml
Bob ->x Alice
Bob -> Alice
Bob ->> Alice
Bob -\ Alice
Bob \\- Alice
Bob //-- Alice

Bob ->o Alice
Bob o\\-- Alice

Bob <-> Alice
Bob <->o Alice
@enduml

화살표 색상 변경

Change arrow color

다음의 표기법을 이용해서 각각 화살표의 색상을 바꿀 수 있다.

@startuml
Bob -[#red]> Alice : hello
Alice -[#0000FF]->Bob : ok
@enduml

You can change the color of individual arrows using the following notation:

@startuml
Bob -[#red]> Alice : hello
Alice -[#0000FF]->Bob : ok
@enduml

메시지 순서에 번호 매기기

Message sequence numbering

autonumber 키워드는 메시지에 자동으로 번호를 매길 때에 사용한다.

@startuml
autonumber
Bob -> Alice : Authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Authentication Response
@enduml

autonumber //시작번호// 의 형태로 표시하면 특정 번호로 시작 할 수 있으며, autonumber //시작번호// //증가값// 으로 표시 할 경우 증가 값을 조정하는 것도 가능하다.

@startuml
autonumber
Bob -> Alice : Authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Authentication Response

autonumber 15
Bob -> Alice : Another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Another authentication Response

autonumber 40 10
Bob -> Alice : Yet another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Yet another authentication Response

@enduml

쌍따옴표를 이용하여 표시 형식을 바꿀 수도 있다.

표시 형식은 자바 클래스 DecimalFormat 을 사용한다. (0 은 숫자를 의미하며, # 은 숫자로 표시하되, 빈 자리이면 0 으로 채우라는 뜻이다).

몇 가지 html 태그를 사용 할 수 있다.

@startuml
autonumber "<b>[000]"
Bob -> Alice : Authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Authentication Response

autonumber 15 "<b>(<u>##</u>)"
Bob -> Alice : Another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Another authentication Response

autonumber 40 10 "<font color=red><b>Message 0  "
Bob -> Alice : Yet another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Yet another authentication Response

@enduml

또한, autonumber stop 키워드를 이용하여 번호 매김을 일시 정지할 수 있으며, autonumber resume //증가값// //표시형식// 키워드를 이용하여 계속해서 번호를 매길 수 있다.

@startuml
autonumber 10 10 "<b>[000]"
Bob -> Alice : Authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Authentication Response

autonumber stop
Bob -> Alice : dummy

autonumber resume "<font color=red><b>Message 0  "
Bob -> Alice : Yet another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Yet another authentication Response

autonumber stop
Bob -> Alice : dummy

autonumber resume 1 "<font color=blue><b>Message 0  "
Bob -> Alice : Yet another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Yet another authentication Response
@enduml

*[Ref. [QA-7119](https://forum.plantuml.net/7119/create-links-after-creating-a-diagram?show=7137#a7137)]*
WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

The keyword autonumber is used to automatically add an incrementing number to messages.

@startuml
autonumber
Bob -> Alice : Authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Authentication Response
@enduml

You can specify a startnumber with autonumber <start> , and also an increment with autonumber <start> <increment>.

@startuml
autonumber
Bob -> Alice : Authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Authentication Response

autonumber 15
Bob -> Alice : Another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Another authentication Response

autonumber 40 10
Bob -> Alice : Yet another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Yet another authentication Response

@enduml

You can specify a format for your number by using between double-quote.

The formatting is done with the Java class DecimalFormat (0 means digit, # means digit and zero if absent).

You can use some html tag in the format.

@startuml
autonumber "<b>[000]"
Bob -> Alice : Authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Authentication Response

autonumber 15 "<b>(<u>##</u>)"
Bob -> Alice : Another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Another authentication Response

autonumber 40 10 "<font color=red><b>Message 0  "
Bob -> Alice : Yet another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Yet another authentication Response

@enduml

You can also use autonumber stop and autonumber resume <increment> <format> to respectively pause and resume automatic numbering.

@startuml
autonumber 10 10 "<b>[000]"
Bob -> Alice : Authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Authentication Response

autonumber stop
Bob -> Alice : dummy

autonumber resume "<font color=red><b>Message 0  "
Bob -> Alice : Yet another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Yet another authentication Response

autonumber stop
Bob -> Alice : dummy

autonumber resume 1 "<font color=blue><b>Message 0  "
Bob -> Alice : Yet another authentication Request
Bob <- Alice : Yet another authentication Response
@enduml

Your startnumber can also be a 2 or 3 digit sequence using a field delimiter such as ., ;, ,, : or a mix of these. For example: 1.1.1 or 1.1:1.

Automatically the last digit will increment.

To increment the first digit, use: autonumber inc A. To increment the second digit, use: autonumber inc B.

@startuml
autonumber 1.1.1
Alice -> Bob: Authentication request
Bob --> Alice: Response

autonumber inc A
'Now we have 2.1.1
Alice -> Bob: Another authentication request
Bob --> Alice: Response

autonumber inc B
'Now we have 2.2.1
Alice -> Bob: Another authentication request
Bob --> Alice: Response

autonumber inc A
'Now we have 3.1.1
Alice -> Bob: Another authentication request
autonumber inc B
'Now we have 3.2.1
Bob --> Alice: Response
@enduml

You can also use the value of autonumber with the %autonumber% variable:

@startuml
autonumber 10
Alice -> Bob
note right
  the <U+0025>autonumber<U+0025> works everywhere.
  Here, its value is ** %autonumber% **
end note
Bob --> Alice: //This is the response %autonumber%//
@enduml

[Ref. QA-7119]

페이지 제목, 머리말과 꼬리말

Page Title, Header and Footer

title 키워드를 이용하여 페이지에 제목을 추가할 수 있다.

또한, headerfooter 를 이용하여, 각각 머리말과 꼬리말을 표시할 수도 있다.

@startuml

header Page Header
footer Page %page% of %lastpage%

title Example Title

Alice -> Bob : message 1
Alice -> Bob : message 2

@enduml

The title keyword is used to add a title to the page.

Pages can display headers and footers using header and footer.

@startuml

header Page Header
footer Page %page% of %lastpage%

title Example Title

Alice -> Bob : message 1
Alice -> Bob : message 2

@enduml

다이어그램 분리

Splitting diagrams

newpage 키워드를 이용하여, 다이어그램을 여러 개의 이미지로 분리 할 수 있다.

newpage 키워드 뒤에 바로 새로 생성되는 페이지의 제목을 넣을 수 있다.

여러 페이지에 걸쳐 있는 긴 다이어그램을 출력할 때 유용하다.

(주: 예제에서 첫 번째 페이지만 표시되었지만, 실제로 잘 동작하는 기능이다.)

@startuml

Alice -> Bob : message 1
Alice -> Bob : message 2

newpage

Alice -> Bob : message 3
Alice -> Bob : message 4

newpage A title for the\nlast page

Alice -> Bob : message 5
Alice -> Bob : message 6
@enduml

The newpage keyword is used to split a diagram into several images.

You can put a title for the new page just after the newpage keyword. This title overrides the previously specified title if any.

This is very handy with Word to print long diagram on several pages.

(Note: this really does work. Only the first page is shown below, but it is a display artifact.)

@startuml

Alice -> Bob : message 1
Alice -> Bob : message 2

newpage

Alice -> Bob : message 3
Alice -> Bob : message 4

newpage A title for the\nlast page

Alice -> Bob : message 5
Alice -> Bob : message 6
@enduml

메세지 그룹화

Grouping message

다음과 같은 키워드들을 사용하여 메세지를 그룹화 할 수 있다:
  • alt/else
  • opt
  • loop
  • par
  • break
  • critical
  • group, 화면에 보여질 텍스트

헤더에 표시될 텍스트를 추가할 수 있다. (group 제외).

end 키워드는 그룹을 닫는데 사용한다.

또한, 그룹을 중첩해서 만들 수도 있다.

@startuml
Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request

alt successful case

    Bob -> Alice: Authentication Accepted

else some kind of failure

    Bob -> Alice: Authentication Failure
    group My own label
    Alice -> Log : Log attack start
        loop 1000 times
            Alice -> Bob: DNS Attack
        end
    Alice -> Log : Log attack end
    end

else Another type of failure

   Bob -> Alice: Please repeat

end
@enduml

WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

It is possible to group messages together using the following keywords:
  • alt/else
  • opt
  • loop
  • par
  • break
  • critical
  • group, followed by a text to be displayed

It is possible to add a text that will be displayed into the header (for group, see next paragraph 'Secondary group label').

The end keyword is used to close the group.

Note that it is possible to nest groups.

@startuml
Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request

alt successful case

    Bob -> Alice: Authentication Accepted

else some kind of failure

    Bob -> Alice: Authentication Failure
    group My own label
    Alice -> Log : Log attack start
        loop 1000 times
            Alice -> Bob: DNS Attack
        end
    Alice -> Log : Log attack end
    end

else Another type of failure

   Bob -> Alice: Please repeat

end
@enduml

Secondary group label

For group, it is possible to add, between[ and ], a secondary text or label that will be displayed into the header.

@startuml
Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
Bob -> Alice: Authentication Failure
group My own label [My own label 2]
    Alice -> Log : Log attack start
    loop 1000 times
        Alice -> Bob: DNS Attack
    end
    Alice -> Log : Log attack end
end
@enduml

[Ref. QA-2503]

메시지에 노트 추가하기

Notes on messages

메시지 다음에 note leftnote right 키워드를 이용하여, 메시지에 노트를 추가할 수 있다.

또한, 한 번에 여러 줄의 노트를 추가하는 경우에는 end note 를 이용하여, 노트의 끝을 표시해 주어야 한다.

@startuml
Alice->Bob : hello
note left: this is a first note

Bob->Alice : ok
note right: this is another note

Bob->Bob : I am thinking
note left
a note
can also be defined
on several lines
end note
@enduml

It is possible to put notes on message using the note left or note right keywords just after the message.

You can have a multi-line note using the end note keywords.

@startuml
Alice->Bob : hello
note left: this is a first note

Bob->Alice : ok
note right: this is another note

Bob->Bob : I am thinking
note left
a note
can also be defined
on several lines
end note
@enduml

다른 형태의 노트들

Some other notes

note left of , note right of, note over 키워드를 이용하여 참여자의 상대적인 위치에 노트를 추가할 수도 있다.

노트의 배경 색을 변경함으로써, 노트를 강조하는 것도 가능하다.

한 번에 여러 줄의 노트를 추가하는 경우에는, end note 를 이용하여 노트의 끝을 표시해 주어야 한다.

@startuml
participant Alice
participant Bob
note left of Alice #aqua
This is displayed
left of Alice.
end note

note right of Alice: This is displayed right of Alice.

note over Alice: This is displayed over Alice.

note over Alice, Bob #FFAAAA: This is displayed\n over Bob and Alice.

note over Bob, Alice
This is yet another
example of
a long note.
end note
@enduml

WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

It is also possible to place notes relative to participant with note left of , note right of or note over keywords.

It is possible to highlight a note by changing its background color.

You can also have a multi-line note using the end note keywords.

@startuml
participant Alice
participant Bob
note left of Alice #aqua
This is displayed
left of Alice.
end note

note right of Alice: This is displayed right of Alice.

note over Alice: This is displayed over Alice.

note over Alice, Bob #FFAAAA: This is displayed\n over Bob and Alice.

note over Bob, Alice
This is yet another
example of
a long note.
end note
@enduml

노트 모양 바꾸기

Changing notes shape [hnote, rnote]

hnoternote 키워드를 이용하여, 노트의 모양을 바꿀 수 있다.

@startuml
caller -> server : conReq
hnote over caller : idle
caller <- server : conConf
rnote over server
 "r" as rectangle
 "h" as hexagon
endrnote
@enduml

*[Ref. [QA-1765](https://forum.plantuml.net/1765/is-it-possible-to-have-different-shapes-for-notes?show=1806#c1806)]*
WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

You can use hnote and rnote keywords to change note shapes :
  • hnote for hexagonal note;
  • rnote for rectangle note.

@startuml
caller -> server : conReq
hnote over caller : idle
caller <- server : conConf
rnote over server
 "r" as rectangle
 "h" as hexagon
endrnote
rnote over server
 this is
 on several
 lines
endrnote
hnote over caller
 this is
 on several
 lines
endhnote
@enduml

[Ref. QA-1765]

Note over all participants [across]

Note over all participants [across]

다음의 문법을 이용해서 모든 참여자에 걸치도록 노트를 작성할 수 있다:
  • note across: note_description

@startuml
Alice->Bob:m1
Bob->Charlie:m2
note over Alice, Charlie: Old method for note over all part. with:\n ""note over //FirstPart, LastPart//"".
note across: New method with:\n""note across""
Bob->Alice
hnote across:Note across all part.
@enduml

[Ref. QA-9738]

You can directly make a note over all participants, with the syntax:
  • note across: note_description

@startuml
Alice->Bob:m1
Bob->Charlie:m2
note over Alice, Charlie: Old method for note over all part. with:\n ""note over //FirstPart, LastPart//"".
note across: New method with:\n""note across""
Bob->Alice
hnote across:Note across all part.
@enduml

[Ref. QA-9738]

Several notes aligned at the same level [/]

You can make several notes aligned at the same level, with the syntax /:
  • without / (by default, the notes are not aligned)

@startuml
note over Alice : initial state of Alice
note over Bob : initial state of Bob
Bob -> Alice : hello
@enduml

  • with / (the notes are aligned)

@startuml
note over Alice : initial state of Alice
/ note over Bob : initial state of Bob
Bob -> Alice : hello
@enduml

[Ref. QA-354]

Creole 과 HTML

Creole and HTML

creole 문법을 사용할 수도 있다:

@startuml
participant Alice
participant "The **Famous** Bob" as Bob

Alice -> Bob : hello --there--
... Some ~~long delay~~ ...
Bob -> Alice : ok
note left
  This is **bold**
  This is //italics//
  This is ""monospaced""
  This is --stroked--
  This is __underlined__
  This is ~~waved~~
end note

Alice -> Bob : A //well formatted// message
note right of Alice
 This is <back:cadetblue><size:18>displayed</size></back>
 __left of__ Alice.
end note
note left of Bob
 <u:red>This</u> is <color #118888>displayed</color>
 **<color purple>left of</color> <s:red>Alice</strike> Bob**.
end note
note over Alice, Bob
 <w:#FF33FF>This is hosted</w> by <img sourceforge.jpg>
end note
@enduml

It is also possible to use creole formatting:

@startuml
participant Alice
participant "The **Famous** Bob" as Bob

Alice -> Bob : hello --there--
... Some ~~long delay~~ ...
Bob -> Alice : ok
note left
  This is **bold**
  This is //italics//
  This is ""monospaced""
  This is --stroked--
  This is __underlined__
  This is ~~waved~~
end note

Alice -> Bob : A //well formatted// message
note right of Alice
 This is <back:cadetblue><size:18>displayed</size></back>
 __left of__ Alice.
end note
note left of Bob
 <u:red>This</u> is <color #118888>displayed</color>
 **<color purple>left of</color> <s:red>Alice</strike> Bob**.
end note
note over Alice, Bob
 <w:#FF33FF>This is hosted</w> by <img sourceforge.jpg>
end note
@enduml

구분자

Divider or separator

== 구분자를 이용하여, 다이어그램을 논리적인 단계로 구분하여 나눌 수 있다.

@startuml

== Initialization ==

Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
Bob --> Alice: Authentication Response

== Repetition ==

Alice -> Bob: Another authentication Request
Alice <-- Bob: another authentication Response

@enduml

WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

If you want, you can split a diagram using == separator to divide your diagram into logical steps.

@startuml

== Initialization ==

Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
Bob --> Alice: Authentication Response

== Repetition ==

Alice -> Bob: Another authentication Request
Alice <-- Bob: another authentication Response

@enduml

참조

Reference

ref over 키워드를 이용하여, 다이어그램에 참조를 표시할 수 있다.

@startuml
participant Alice
actor Bob

ref over Alice, Bob : init

Alice -> Bob : hello

ref over Bob
  This can be on
  several lines
end ref
@enduml

You can use reference in a diagram, using the keyword ref over.

@startuml
participant Alice
actor Bob

ref over Alice, Bob : init

Alice -> Bob : hello

ref over Bob
  This can be on
  several lines
end ref
@enduml

지연

Delay

... 을 이용하여, 다이어그램에 지연 상태를 나타낼 수 있으며, 그 위에 메시지를 추가할 수도 있다.

@startuml

Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
...
Bob --> Alice: Authentication Response
...5 minutes latter...
Bob --> Alice: Bye !

@enduml

You can use ... to indicate a delay in the diagram. And it is also possible to put a message with this delay.

@startuml

Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
...
Bob --> Alice: Authentication Response
...5 minutes later...
Bob --> Alice: Good Bye !

@enduml

문장 줄 바꿈

Text wrapping

긴 메시지를 줄 바꿈하려면, 문장 안에 \n을 추가한다.

다른 방법은 maxMessageSize 설정을 사용한다:

@startuml
skinparam maxMessageSize 50
participant a
participant b
a -> b :this\nis\nmanually\ndone
a -> b :this is a very long message on several words
@enduml

To break long messages, you can manually add \n in your text.

Another option is to use maxMessageSize setting:

@startuml
skinparam maxMessageSize 50
participant a
participant b
a -> b :this\nis\nmanually\ndone
a -> b :this is a very long message on several words
@enduml

공백

Space

||| 을 이용하여 다이어그램에 공백을 나타낼 수 있으며, 공백에 얼마만큼의 픽셀을 사용할 것인지 숫자로 명시할 수도 있다.

@startuml

Alice -> Bob: message 1
Bob --> Alice: ok
|||
Alice -> Bob: message 2
Bob --> Alice: ok
||45||
Alice -> Bob: message 3
Bob --> Alice: ok

@enduml

You can use ||| to indicate some spacing in the diagram.

It is also possible to specify a number of pixel to be used.

@startuml

Alice -> Bob: message 1
Bob --> Alice: ok
|||
Alice -> Bob: message 2
Bob --> Alice: ok
||45||
Alice -> Bob: message 3
Bob --> Alice: ok

@enduml

생명선 활성화 및 비활성화

Lifeline Activation and Destruction

activatedeactivate 는 참여자의 활성화 여부를 표현하는데 사용한다.

참여자가 활성화되면, 참여자의 생명선이 나타난다.

activatedeactivate 는 바로 이전의 메시지에 적용된다.

destroy 는 참여자의 생명선이 끝났음을 표현한다.

@startuml
participant User

User -> A: DoWork
activate A

A -> B: << createRequest >>
activate B

B -> C: DoWork
activate C
C --> B: WorkDone
destroy C

B --> A: RequestCreated
deactivate B

A -> User: Done
deactivate A

@enduml

생명선은 중첩해서 사용할 수 있으며, 생명선에 을 넣을 수도 있다.

@startuml
participant User

User -> A: DoWork
activate A #FFBBBB

A -> A: Internal call
activate A #DarkSalmon

A -> B: << createRequest >>
activate B

B --> A: RequestCreated
deactivate B
deactivate A
A -> User: Done
deactivate A

@enduml

WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

The activate and deactivate are used to denote participant activation.

Once a participant is activated, its lifeline appears.

The activate and deactivate apply on the previous message.

The destroy denote the end of the lifeline of a participant.

@startuml
participant User

User -> A: DoWork
activate A

A -> B: << createRequest >>
activate B

B -> C: DoWork
activate C
C --> B: WorkDone
destroy C

B --> A: RequestCreated
deactivate B

A -> User: Done
deactivate A

@enduml

Nested lifeline can be used, and it is possible to add a color on the lifeline.

@startuml
participant User

User -> A: DoWork
activate A #FFBBBB

A -> A: Internal call
activate A #DarkSalmon

A -> B: << createRequest >>
activate B

B --> A: RequestCreated
deactivate B
deactivate A
A -> User: Done
deactivate A

@enduml

Autoactivation is possible and works with the return keywords:

@startuml
autoactivate on
alice -> bob : hello
bob -> bob : self call
bill -> bob #005500 : hello from thread 2
bob -> george ** : create
return done in thread 2
return rc
bob -> george !! : delete
return success

@enduml

리턴

Return

리턴 메시지를 생성하는 return 명령이 추가되었다. 리턴되는 지점은 가장 최근에 생명선을 활성화 시킨 지점의 출발점이 된다. 문법은 간단히 return //꼬리표// 이며, 꼬리표는 기존의 메시지와 마찬가지로 임의의 문자열을 쓸 수 있다.

@startuml
Bob -> Alice : hello
activate Alice
Alice -> Alice : some action
return bye
@enduml

Command return generates a return message with optional text label.

The return point is that which caused the most recent life-line activation.

The syntax is return label where label if provided is any string acceptable for conventional messages.

@startuml
Bob -> Alice : hello
activate Alice
Alice -> Alice : some action
return bye
@enduml

참여자 생성

Participant creation

해당 메시지가 실제로 새 객체를 생성한다는 걸 강조하기 위해, 참여자가 첫 번째 메시지를 수신하기 전에 create 키워드를 사용할 수 있다.

@startuml
Bob -> Alice : hello

create Other
Alice -> Other : new

create control String
Alice -> String
note right : You can also put notes!

Alice --> Bob : ok

@enduml

You can use the create keyword just before the first reception of a message to emphasize the fact that this message is actually creating this new object.

@startuml
Bob -> Alice : hello

create Other
Alice -> Other : new

create control String
Alice -> String
note right : You can also put notes!

Alice --> Bob : ok

@enduml

Shortcut syntax for activation, deactivation, creation

Shortcut syntax for activation, deactivation, creation

Immediately after specifying the target participant, the following syntax can be used:

  • ++ Activate the target (optionally a #color may follow this)
  • -- Deactivate the source
  • ** Create an instance of the target
  • !! Destroy an instance of the target

@startuml
alice -> bob ++ : hello
bob -> bob ++ : self call
bob -> bib ++  #005500 : hello
bob -> george ** : create
return done
return rc
bob -> george !! : delete
return success
@enduml

*[Ref. [QA-4834](https:forum.plantuml.net/4834/activation-shorthand-for-sequence-diagrams?show=13054#c13054), [QA-9573](https:forum.plantuml.net/9573) and [QA-13234](https://forum.plantuml.net/13234)]*
WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

Immediately after specifying the target participant, the following syntax can be used:

  • ++ Activate the target (optionally a color may follow this)
  • -- Deactivate the source
  • ** Create an instance of the target
  • !! Destroy an instance of the target

@startuml
alice -> bob ++ : hello
bob -> bob ++ : self call
bob -> bib ++  #005500 : hello
bob -> george ** : create
return done
return rc
bob -> george !! : delete
return success
@enduml

Then you can mix activation and deactivation, on same line:

@startuml
alice   ->  bob     ++   : hello1
bob     ->  charlie --++ : hello2
charlie --> alice   --   : ok
@enduml

@startuml
@startuml
alice -> bob   --++ #gold: hello
bob   -> alice --++ #gold: you too
alice -> bob   --: step1
alice -> bob   : step2
@enduml
@enduml

[Ref. QA-4834, QA-9573 and QA-13234]

Incoming and outgoing messages

Incoming and outgoing messages

You can use incoming or outgoing arrows if you want to focus on a part of the diagram.

Use square brackets to denote the left "[" or the right "]" side of the diagram.

@startuml
[-> A: DoWork

activate A

A -> A: Internal call
activate A

A ->] : << createRequest >>

A<--] : RequestCreated
deactivate A
[<- A: Done
deactivate A
@enduml

You can also have the following syntax:

@startuml
[-> Bob
[o-> Bob
[o->o Bob
[x-> Bob

[<- Bob
[x<- Bob

Bob ->]
Bob ->o]
Bob o->o]
Bob ->x]

Bob <-]
Bob x<-]
@enduml

WARNING
 This translation need to be updated. 
WARNING

You can use incoming or outgoing arrows if you want to focus on a part of the diagram.

Use square brackets to denote the left "[" or the right "]" side of the diagram.

@startuml
[-> A: DoWork

activate A

A -> A: Internal call
activate A

A ->] : << createRequest >>

A<--] : RequestCreated
deactivate A
[<- A: Done
deactivate A
@enduml

You can also have the following syntax:

@startuml
participant Alice
participant Bob #lightblue
Alice -> Bob
Bob -> Carol
...
[-> Bob
[o-> Bob
[o->o Bob
[x-> Bob
...
[<- Bob
[x<- Bob
...
Bob ->]
Bob ->o]
Bob o->o]
Bob ->x]
...
Bob <-]
Bob x<-]

@enduml

Short arrows for incoming and outgoing messages

You can have short arrows with using ?.

@startuml
?-> Alice    : ""?->""\n**short** to actor1
[-> Alice    : ""[->""\n**from start** to actor1
[-> Bob      : ""[->""\n**from start** to actor2
?-> Bob      : ""?->""\n**short** to actor2
Alice ->]    : ""->]""\nfrom actor1 **to end**
Alice ->?    : ""->?""\n**short** from actor1
Alice -> Bob : ""->"" \nfrom actor1 to actor2
@enduml

[Ref. QA-310]

Anchors and Duration

With teoz it is possible to add anchors to the diagram and use the anchors to specify duration time.

@startuml
!pragma teoz true

{start} Alice -> Bob : start doing things during duration
Bob -> Max : something
Max -> Bob : something else
{end} Bob -> Alice : finish

{start} <-> {end} : some time

@enduml

You can use the -P command-line option to specify the pragma:

java -jar plantuml.jar -Pteoz=true

[Ref. issue-582]

Stereotypes and Spots

It is possible to add stereotypes to participants using << and >>.

In the stereotype, you can add a spotted character in a colored circle using the syntax (X,color).

@startuml

participant "Famous Bob" as Bob << Generated >>
participant Alice << (C,#ADD1B2) Testable >>

Bob->Alice: First message

@enduml

By default, the guillemet character is used to display the stereotype. You can change this behavious using the skinparam guillemet:

@startuml

skinparam guillemet false
participant "Famous Bob" as Bob << Generated >>
participant Alice << (C,#ADD1B2) Testable >>

Bob->Alice: First message

@enduml

@startuml

participant Bob << (C,#ADD1B2) >>
participant Alice << (C,#ADD1B2) >>

Bob->Alice: First message

@enduml

More information on titles

You can use creole formatting in the title.

@startuml

title __Simple__ **communication** example

Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
Bob -> Alice: Authentication Response

@enduml

You can add newline using \n in the title description.

@startuml

title __Simple__ communication example\non several lines

Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
Bob -> Alice: Authentication Response

@enduml

You can also define title on several lines using title and end title keywords.

@startuml

title
 <u>Simple</u> communication example
 on <i>several</i> lines and using <font color=red>html</font>
 This is hosted by <img:sourceforge.jpg>
end title

Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
Bob -> Alice: Authentication Response

@enduml

Participants encompass

It is possible to draw a box around some participants, using box and end box commands.

You can add an optional title or a optional background color, after the box keyword.

@startuml

box "Internal Service" #LightBlue
participant Bob
participant Alice
end box
participant Other

Bob -> Alice : hello
Alice -> Other : hello

@enduml

Removing Footer

Removing Foot Boxes

You can use the hide footbox keywords to remove the footer of the diagram.

@startuml

hide footbox
title Footer removed

Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
Bob --> Alice: Authentication Response

@enduml

You can use the hide footbox keywords to remove the foot boxes of the diagram.

@startuml

hide footbox
title Foot Box removed

Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
Bob --> Alice: Authentication Response

@enduml

Skinparam

Skinparam

You can use the skinparam command to change colors and fonts for the drawing.

You can use this command:

You can also change other rendering parameter, as seen in the following examples:

@startuml
skinparam sequenceArrowThickness 2
skinparam roundcorner 20
skinparam maxmessagesize 60
skinparam sequenceParticipant underline

actor User
participant "First Class" as A
participant "Second Class" as B
participant "Last Class" as C

User -> A: DoWork
activate A

A -> B: Create Request
activate B

B -> C: DoWork
activate C
C --> B: WorkDone
destroy C

B --> A: Request Created
deactivate B

A --> User: Done
deactivate A

@enduml

@startuml
skinparam backgroundColor #EEEBDC
skinparam handwritten true

skinparam sequence {
ArrowColor DeepSkyBlue
ActorBorderColor DeepSkyBlue
LifeLineBorderColor blue
LifeLineBackgroundColor #A9DCDF

ParticipantBorderColor DeepSkyBlue
ParticipantBackgroundColor DodgerBlue
ParticipantFontName Impact
ParticipantFontSize 17
ParticipantFontColor #A9DCDF

ActorBackgroundColor aqua
ActorFontColor DeepSkyBlue
ActorFontSize 17
ActorFontName Aapex
}

actor User
participant "First Class" as A
participant "Second Class" as B
participant "Last Class" as C

User -> A: DoWork
activate A

A -> B: Create Request
activate B

B -> C: DoWork
activate C
C --> B: WorkDone
destroy C

B --> A: Request Created
deactivate B

A --> User: Done
deactivate A

@enduml

You can use the skinparam command to change colors and fonts for the drawing.

You can use this command:

You can also change other rendering parameter, as seen in the following examples:

@startuml
skinparam sequenceArrowThickness 2
skinparam roundcorner 20
skinparam maxmessagesize 60
skinparam sequenceParticipant underline

actor User
participant "First Class" as A
participant "Second Class" as B
participant "Last Class" as C

User -> A: DoWork
activate A

A -> B: Create Request
activate B

B -> C: DoWork
activate C
C --> B: WorkDone
destroy C

B --> A: Request Created
deactivate B

A --> User: Done
deactivate A

@enduml

@startuml
skinparam backgroundColor #EEEBDC
skinparam handwritten true

skinparam sequence {
ArrowColor DeepSkyBlue
ActorBorderColor DeepSkyBlue
LifeLineBorderColor blue
LifeLineBackgroundColor #A9DCDF

ParticipantBorderColor DeepSkyBlue
ParticipantBackgroundColor DodgerBlue
ParticipantFontName Impact
ParticipantFontSize 17
ParticipantFontColor #A9DCDF

ActorBackgroundColor aqua
ActorFontColor DeepSkyBlue
ActorFontSize 17
ActorFontName Aapex
}

actor User
participant "First Class" as A
participant "Second Class" as B
participant "Last Class" as C

User -> A: DoWork
activate A

A -> B: Create Request
activate B

B -> C: DoWork
activate C
C --> B: WorkDone
destroy C

B --> A: Request Created
deactivate B

A --> User: Done
deactivate A

@enduml

Changing padding

Changing padding

It is possible to tune some padding settings.

@startuml
skinparam ParticipantPadding 20
skinparam BoxPadding 10

box "Foo1"
participant Alice1
participant Alice2
end box
box "Foo2"
participant Bob1
participant Bob2
end box
Alice1 -> Bob1 : hello
Alice1 -> Out : out
@enduml

It is possible to tune some padding settings.

@startuml
skinparam ParticipantPadding 20
skinparam BoxPadding 10

box "Foo1"
participant Alice1
participant Alice2
end box
box "Foo2"
participant Bob1
participant Bob2
end box
Alice1 -> Bob1 : hello
Alice1 -> Out : out
@enduml

Appendix: Examples of all arrow type

Normal arrow

@startuml
participant Alice as a
participant Bob   as b
a ->     b : ""->   ""
a ->>    b : ""->>  ""
a -\     b : ""-\   ""
a -\\    b : ""-\\\\""
a -/     b : ""-/   ""
a -//    b : ""-//  ""
a ->x    b : ""->x  ""
a x->    b : ""x->  ""
a o->    b : ""o->  ""
a ->o    b : ""->o  ""
a o->o   b : ""o->o ""
a <->    b : ""<->  ""
a o<->o  b : ""o<->o""
a x<->x  b : ""x<->x""
a ->>o   b : ""->>o ""
a -\o    b : ""-\o  ""
a -\\o   b : ""-\\\\o""
a -/o    b : ""-/o  ""
a -//o   b : ""-//o ""
a x->o   b : ""x->o ""
@enduml

Itself arrow

@startuml
participant Alice as a
participant Bob   as b
a ->     a : ""->   ""
a ->>    a : ""->>  ""
a -\     a : ""-\   ""
a -\\    a : ""-\\\\""
a -/     a : ""-/   ""
a -//    a : ""-//  ""
a ->x    a : ""->x  ""
a x->    a : ""x->  ""
a o->    a : ""o->  ""
a ->o    a : ""->o  ""
a o->o   a : ""o->o ""
a <->    a : ""<->  ""
a o<->o  a : ""o<->o""
a x<->x  a : ""x<->x""
a ->>o   a : ""->>o ""
a -\o    a : ""-\o  ""
a -\\o   a : ""-\\\\o""
a -/o    a : ""-/o  ""
a -//o   a : ""-//o ""
a x->o   a : ""x->o ""
@enduml

Incoming and outgoing messages (with '[', ']')

Incoming messages (with '[')

@startuml
participant Alice as a
participant Bob   as b
[->      b : ""[->   ""
[->>     b : ""[->>  ""
[-\      b : ""[-\   ""
[-\\     b : ""[-\\\\""
[-/      b : ""[-/   ""
[-//     b : ""[-//  ""
[->x     b : ""[->x  ""
[x->     b : ""[x->  ""
[o->     b : ""[o->  ""
[->o     b : ""[->o  ""
[o->o    b : ""[o->o ""
[<->     b : ""[<->  ""
[o<->o   b : ""[o<->o""
[x<->x   b : ""[x<->x""
[->>o    b : ""[->>o ""
[-\o     b : ""[-\o  ""
[-\\o    b : ""[-\\\\o""
[-/o     b : ""[-/o  ""
[-//o    b : ""[-//o ""
[x->o    b : ""[x->o ""
@enduml

Outgoing messages (with ']')

@startuml
participant Alice as a
participant Bob   as b
a ->]      : ""->]   ""
a ->>]     : ""->>]  ""
a -\]      : ""-\]   ""
a -\\]     : ""-\\\\]""
a -/]      : ""-/]   ""
a -//]     : ""-//]  ""
a ->x]     : ""->x]  ""
a x->]     : ""x->]  ""
a o->]     : ""o->]  ""
a ->o]     : ""->o]  ""
a o->o]    : ""o->o] ""
a <->]     : ""<->]  ""
a o<->o]   : ""o<->o]""
a x<->x]   : ""x<->x]""
a ->>o]    : ""->>o] ""
a -\o]     : ""-\o]  ""
a -\\o]    : ""-\\\\o]""
a -/o]     : ""-/o]  ""
a -//o]    : ""-//o] ""
a x->o]    : ""x->o] ""
@enduml

Short incoming and outgoing messages (with '?')

Short incoming (with '?')

@startuml
participant Alice as a
participant Bob   as b
a ->     b : //Long long label//
?->      b : ""?->   ""
?->>     b : ""?->>  ""
?-\      b : ""?-\   ""
?-\\     b : ""?-\\\\""
?-/      b : ""?-/   ""
?-//     b : ""?-//  ""
?->x     b : ""?->x  ""
?x->     b : ""?x->  ""
?o->     b : ""?o->  ""
?->o     b : ""?->o  ""
?o->o    b : ""?o->o ""
?<->     b : ""?<->  ""
?o<->o   b : ""?o<->o""
?x<->x   b : ""?x<->x""
?->>o    b : ""?->>o ""
?-\o     b : ""?-\o  ""
?-\\o    b : ""?-\\\\o ""
?-/o     b : ""?-/o  ""
?-//o    b : ""?-//o ""
?x->o    b : ""?x->o ""
@enduml

Short outgoing (with '?')

@startuml
participant Alice as a
participant Bob   as b
a ->     b : //Long long label//
a ->?      : ""->?   ""
a ->>?     : ""->>?  ""
a -\?      : ""-\?   ""
a -\\?     : ""-\\\\?""
a -/?      : ""-/?   ""
a -//?     : ""-//?  ""
a ->x?     : ""->x?  ""
a x->?     : ""x->?  ""
a o->?     : ""o->?  ""
a ->o?     : ""->o?  ""
a o->o?    : ""o->o? ""
a <->?     : ""<->?  ""
a o<->o?   : ""o<->o?""
a x<->x?   : ""x<->x?""
a ->>o?    : ""->>o? ""
a -\o?     : ""-\o?  ""
a -\\o?    : ""-\\\\o?""
a -/o?     : ""-/o?  ""
a -//o?    : ""-//o? ""
a x->o?    : ""x->o? ""
@enduml

Specific SkinParameter

By default

@startuml
Bob -> Alice : hello
Alice -> Bob : ok
@enduml

LifelineStrategy

  • nosolid (by default)

@startuml
skinparam lifelineStrategy nosolid
Bob -> Alice : hello
Alice -> Bob : ok
@enduml

[Ref. QA-9016]

  • solid
In order to have solid life line in sequence diagrams, you can use: skinparam lifelineStrategy solid

@startuml
skinparam lifelineStrategy solid
Bob -> Alice : hello
Alice -> Bob : ok
@enduml

[Ref. QA-2794]

style strictuml

To be conform to strict UML (for arrow style: emits triangle rather than sharp arrowheads), you can use:
  • skinparam style strictuml

@startuml
skinparam style strictuml
Bob -> Alice : hello
Alice -> Bob : ok
@enduml

[Ref. QA-1047]

Hide unlinked participant

By default, all participants are displayed.

@startuml
participant Alice
participant Bob
participant Carol

Alice -> Bob : hello
@enduml

But you can hide unlinked participant.

@startuml
hide unlinked
participant Alice
participant Bob
participant Carol

Alice -> Bob : hello
@enduml

[Ref. QA-4247]

Color a group message

It is possible to color a group messages:

@startuml
Alice -> Bob: Authentication Request
alt#Gold #LightBlue Successful case
    Bob -> Alice: Authentication Accepted
else #Pink Failure
    Bob -> Alice: Authentication Rejected
end
@enduml

[Ref. QA-4750 and QA-6410]

Mainframe

@startuml
mainframe This is a **mainframe**
Alice->Bob : Hello
@enduml

[Ref. QA-4019 and Issue#148]


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