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Diagramme de cas d'utilisation

Let's have few examples :

Note that you can disable the shadowing using the skinparam shadowing false command.

Use Case Diagram

Let's have a few examples:

Cas d'utilisation

Les cas d'utilisation sont mis entre parenthèses (car deux parenthèses forment un ovale).

Vous pouvez aussi utiliser le mot-clé usecase pour définir un cas d'utilisation. Et vous pouvez définir un alias avec le mot-clé as. Cet alias sera ensuite utilisé lors de la définition des relations.

@startuml

(First usecase)
(Another usecase) as (UC2)
usecase UC3
usecase (Last\nusecase) as UC4

@enduml

Usecases

Use cases are enclosed using between parentheses (because two parentheses looks like an oval).

You can also use the usecase keyword to define a usecase. And you can define an alias, using the as keyword. This alias will be used later, when defining relations.

@startuml

(First usecase)
(Another usecase) as (UC2)
usecase UC3
usecase (Last\nusecase) as UC4

@enduml

Acteurs

Un Acteur est encadré par des deux points.

Vous pouvez aussi utiliser le mot-clé actor pour définir un acteur. Et vous pouvez définir un alias avec le mot-clé as. Cet alias sera ensuite utilisé lors de la définition des relations.

Nous verrons que la définition des acteurs est optionnelle.

@startuml

:First Actor:
:Another\nactor: as Men2
actor Men3
actor :Last actor: as Men4

@enduml

Actors

The name defining an actor is enclosed between colons.

You can also use the actor keyword to define an actor. An alias can be assigned using the as keyword and can be used later instead of the actor's name, e. g. when defining relations.

You can see from the following examples, that the actor definitions are optional.

@startuml

:First Actor:
:Another\nactor: as Man2
actor Woman3
actor :Last actor: as Person1

@enduml

Change Actor style

You can change the actor style from stick man (by default) to:
  • an awesome man with the skinparam actorStyle awesome command;
  • a hollow man with the skinparam actorStyle hollow command.

Stick man (by default)

@startuml
:User: --> (Use)
"Main Admin" as Admin
"Use the application" as (Use)
Admin --> (Admin the application)
@enduml

Awesome man

@startuml
skinparam actorStyle awesome
:User: --> (Use)
"Main Admin" as Admin
"Use the application" as (Use)
Admin --> (Admin the application)
@enduml

[Ref. QA-10493]

Hollow man

@startuml
skinparam actorStyle Hollow 
:User: --> (Use)
"Main Admin" as Admin
"Use the application" as (Use)
Admin --> (Admin the application)
@enduml

[Ref. PR#396]

Description des cas d'utilisation

Si vous voulez une description sur plusieurs lignes, vous pouvez utiliser des guillemets.

Vous pouvez aussi utiliser les séparateurs suivants: -- .. == __. Et vous pouvez mettre un titre dans les séparateurs.

@startuml

usecase UC1 as "You can use
several lines to define your usecase.
You can also use separators.
--
Several separators are possible.
==
And you can add titles:
..Conclusion..
This allows large description."

@enduml

Usecases description

If you want to have a description spanning several lines, you can use quotes.

You can also use the following separators:
  • -- (dashes)
  • .. (periods)
  • == (equals)
  • __ (underscores)

By using them pairwise and enclosing text between them, you can created separators with titles.

@startuml

usecase UC1 as "You can use
several lines to define your usecase.
You can also use separators.
--
Several separators are possible.
==
And you can add titles:
..Conclusion..
This allows large description."

@enduml

Use package

You can use packages to group actors or use cases.

@startuml
left to right direction
actor Guest as g
package Professional {
  actor Chef as c
  actor "Food Critic" as fc
}
package Restaurant {
  usecase "Eat Food" as UC1
  usecase "Pay for Food" as UC2
  usecase "Drink" as UC3
  usecase "Review" as UC4
}
fc --> UC4
g --> UC1
g --> UC2
g --> UC3
@enduml

You can use rectangle to change the display of the package.

@startuml
left to right direction
actor "Food Critic" as fc
rectangle Restaurant {
  usecase "Eat Food" as UC1
  usecase "Pay for Food" as UC2
  usecase "Drink" as UC3
}
fc --> UC1
fc --> UC2
fc --> UC3
@enduml

Exemples très simples

Pour lier les acteurs et les cas d'utilisation, la flèche --> est utilisée.

Plus il y a de tirets - dans la flèche, plus elle sera longue. Vous pouvez ajouter un libellé sur la flèche, en ajoutant un caractère : dans la définition de la flèche.

Dans cet exemple, vous voyez que User n'a pas été défini préalablement, et qu'il est implicitement reconnu comme acteur.

@startuml

User -> (Start)
User --> (Use the application) : A small label

:Main Admin: ---> (Use the application) : This is\nyet another\nlabel

@enduml

Basic example

To link actors and use cases, the arrow --> is used.

The more dashes - in the arrow, the longer the arrow. You can add a label on the arrow, by adding a : character in the arrow definition.

In this example, you see that User has not been defined before, and is used as an actor.

@startuml

User -> (Start)
User --> (Use the application) : A small label

:Main Admin: ---> (Use the application) : This is\nyet another\nlabel

@enduml

Héritage

Si un acteur ou un cas d'utilisation en étend un autre, vous pouvez utiliser le symbole <|--.

@startuml
:Main Admin: as Admin
(Use the application) as (Use)

User <|-- Admin
(Start) <|-- (Use)

@enduml

Extension

If one actor/use case extends another one, you can use the symbol <|--.

@startuml
:Main Admin: as Admin
(Use the application) as (Use)

User <|-- Admin
(Start) <|-- (Use)

@enduml

Notes

Vous pouvez utiliser les mots clés note left of , note right of , note top of , note bottom of pour définir les notes en relation avec un objet.

Une note peut également être définie seule avec des mots-clés, puis liée à d'autres objets en utilisant le symbole .. .

@startuml
:Main Admin: as Admin
(Use the application) as (Use)

User -> (Start)
User --> (Use)

Admin ---> (Use)

note right of Admin : This is an example.

note right of (Use)
  A note can also
  be on several lines
end note

note "This note is connected\nto several objects." as N2
(Start) .. N2
N2 .. (Use)
@enduml

Using notes

You can use the note left of , note right of , note top of , note bottom of keywords to define notes related to a single object.

A note can be also define alone with the note keywords, then linked to other objects using the .. symbol.

@startuml
:Main Admin: as Admin
(Use the application) as (Use)

User -> (Start)
User --> (Use)

Admin ---> (Use)

note right of Admin : This is an example.

note right of (Use)
  A note can also
  be on several lines
end note

note "This note is connected\nto several objects." as N2
(Start) .. N2
N2 .. (Use)
@enduml

Stéréotypes

Vous pouvez ajouter des stéréotypes à la définition des acteurs et des cas d'utilisation avec << et >>.

@startuml
User << Human >>
:Main Database: as MySql << Application >>
(Start) << One Shot >>
(Use the application) as (Use) << Main >>

User -> (Start)
User --> (Use)

MySql --> (Use)

@enduml

Stereotypes

You can add stereotypes while defining actors and use cases using << and >>.

@startuml
User << Human >>
:Main Database: as MySql << Application >>
(Start) << One Shot >>
(Use the application) as (Use) << Main >>

User -> (Start)
User --> (Use)

MySql --> (Use)

@enduml

Changer les directions des flèches

Par défaut, les liens entre les classes ont deux tirets -- et sont orientés verticalement. Il est possible de mettre des liens horizontaux en mettant un seul tiret (ou un point) comme ceci:

@startuml
:user: --> (Use case 1)
:user: -> (Use case 2)
@enduml

Vous pouvez aussi changer le sens en renversant le lien :

@startuml
(Use case 1) <.. :user:
(Use case 2) <- :user:
@enduml

Il est possible de changer la direction d'une flèche en utilisant les mots-clé left, right, up ou down à l'intérieur de la flèche :

@startuml
:user: -left-> (dummyLeft)
:user: -right-> (dummyRight)
:user: -up-> (dummyUp)
:user: -down-> (dummyDown)
@enduml

Vous pouvez abréger les noms des flèches en indiquant seulement le premier caractère de la direction (par exemple -d- pour -down-) ou les deux premiers caractères (-do-).

Il est conseillé de ne pas abuser de cette fonctionnalité : Graphviz qui donne d'assez bon résultats quoique non "garantis".

Changing arrows direction

By default, links between classes have two dashes -- and are vertically oriented. It is possible to use horizontal link by putting a single dash (or dot) like this:

@startuml
:user: --> (Use case 1)
:user: -> (Use case 2)
@enduml

You can also change directions by reversing the link:

@startuml
(Use case 1) <.. :user:
(Use case 2) <- :user:
@enduml

It is also possible to change arrow direction by adding left, right, up or down keywords inside the arrow:

@startuml
:user: -left-> (dummyLeft)
:user: -right-> (dummyRight)
:user: -up-> (dummyUp)
:user: -down-> (dummyDown)
@enduml

You can shorten the arrow by using only the first character of the direction (for example, -d- instead of -down-) or the two first characters (-do-).

Please note that you should not abuse this functionality : Graphviz gives usually good results without tweaking.

And with the left to right direction parameter:

@startuml
left to right direction
:user: -left-> (dummyLeft)
:user: -right-> (dummyRight)
:user: -up-> (dummyUp)
:user: -down-> (dummyDown)
@enduml

Découper les diagrames

Le mot-clé newpage est utilisé pour découper un diagrame en plusieurs images.

@startuml
:actor1: --> (Usecase1)
newpage
:actor2: --> (Usecase2)
@enduml

Splitting diagrams

The newpage keywords to split your diagram into several pages or images.

@startuml
:actor1: --> (Usecase1)
newpage
:actor2: --> (Usecase2)
@enduml

De droite à gauche

Le comportement général de construction des diagrammes est de haut en bas.

@startuml
'default
top to bottom direction
user1 --> (Usecase 1)
user2 --> (Usecase 2)

@enduml

Il est possible de changer pour aller plutôt de la droite vers la gauche avec la commande left to right direction. Le résultat est parfois meilleur dans ce cas.

@startuml

left to right direction
user1 --> (Usecase 1)
user2 --> (Usecase 2)

@enduml

Left to right direction

The general default behavior when building diagram is top to bottom.

@startuml
'default
top to bottom direction
user1 --> (Usecase 1)
user2 --> (Usecase 2)

@enduml

You may change to left to right using the left to right direction command. The result is often better with this direction.

@startuml

left to right direction
user1 --> (Usecase 1)
user2 --> (Usecase 2)

@enduml

La commande Skinparam

Utilisez la commande skinparam pour changer la couleur et la mise en forme du texte du schéma.

Vous pouvez utiliser cette commande :

Vous pouvez aussi spécifier les polices et les couleurs pour les acteurs et cas d'utilisation avec des stéréotypes.

@startuml
skinparam handwritten true

skinparam usecase {
BackgroundColor DarkSeaGreen
BorderColor DarkSlateGray

BackgroundColor<< Main >> YellowGreen
BorderColor<< Main >> YellowGreen

ArrowColor Olive
ActorBorderColor black
ActorFontName Courier

ActorBackgroundColor<< Human >> Gold
}

User << Human >>
:Main Database: as MySql << Application >>
(Start) << One Shot >>
(Use the application) as (Use) << Main >>

User -> (Start)
User --> (Use)

MySql --> (Use)

@enduml

Skinparam

You can use the skinparam command to change colors and fonts for the drawing.

You can use this command :

You can define specific color and fonts for stereotyped actors and usecases.

@startuml
skinparam handwritten true

skinparam usecase {
BackgroundColor DarkSeaGreen
BorderColor DarkSlateGray

BackgroundColor<< Main >> YellowGreen
BorderColor<< Main >> YellowGreen

ArrowColor Olive
ActorBorderColor black
ActorFontName Courier

ActorBackgroundColor<< Human >> Gold
}

User << Human >>
:Main Database: as MySql << Application >>
(Start) << One Shot >>
(Use the application) as (Use) << Main >>

User -> (Start)
User --> (Use)

MySql --> (Use)

@enduml

Exemple complet

@startuml
left to right direction
skinparam packageStyle rectangle
actor customer
actor clerk
rectangle checkout {
  customer -- (checkout)
  (checkout) .> (payment) : include
  (help) .> (checkout) : extends
  (checkout) -- clerk
}
@enduml

Complete example

@startuml
left to right direction
skinparam packageStyle rectangle
actor customer
actor clerk
rectangle checkout {
  customer -- (checkout)
  (checkout) .> (payment) : include
  (help) .> (checkout) : extends
  (checkout) -- clerk
}
@enduml


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