Multilingual Wiki Documentation

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类图

Class Diagram

Declaring element

@startuml
abstract        abstract
abstract class  "abstract class"
annotation      annotation
circle          circle
()              circle_short_form
class           class
diamond         diamond
<>              diamond_short_form
entity          entity
enum            enum
interface       interface
@enduml

类之间的关系

类之间的关系通过下面的符号定义 :

Type Symbol Drawing
Extension(扩展) <|--
Composition(组合) *--
Aggregation(聚合) o--

使用.. 来代替 -- 可以得到点 线.

在这些规则下,也可以绘制下列图形

@startuml
Class01 <|-- Class02
Class03 *-- Class04
Class05 o-- Class06
Class07 .. Class08
Class09 -- Class10
@enduml

@startuml
Class11 <|.. Class12
Class13 --> Class14
Class15 ..> Class16
Class17 ..|> Class18
Class19 <--* Class20
@enduml

@startuml
Class21 #-- Class22
Class23 x-- Class24
Class25 }-- Class26
Class27 +-- Class28
Class29 ^-- Class30
@enduml

Relations between classes

Relations between classes are defined using the following symbols :

Type Symbol Drawing
Extension <|--
Composition *--
Aggregation o--

It is possible to replace -- by .. to have a dotted line.

Knowing those rules, it is possible to draw the following drawings:

@startuml
Class01 <|-- Class02
Class03 *-- Class04
Class05 o-- Class06
Class07 .. Class08
Class09 -- Class10
@enduml

@startuml
Class11 <|.. Class12
Class13 --> Class14
Class15 ..> Class16
Class17 ..|> Class18
Class19 <--* Class20
@enduml

@startuml
Class21 #-- Class22
Class23 x-- Class24
Class25 }-- Class26
Class27 +-- Class28
Class29 ^-- Class30
@enduml

关系上的标识

在关系之间使用标签来说明时, 使用 :后接 标签文字。

对元素的说明,你可以在每一边使用 "" 来说明.

@startuml

Class01 "1" *-- "many" Class02 : contains

Class03 o-- Class04 : aggregation

Class05 --> "1" Class06

@enduml

在标签的开始或结束位置添加<>以表明是哪个对象作用到哪个对象上。

@startuml
class Car

Driver - Car : drives >
Car *- Wheel : have 4 >
Car -- Person : < owns

@enduml

Label on relations

It is possible to add a label on the relation, using :, followed by the text of the label.

For cardinality, you can use double-quotes "" on each side of the relation.

@startuml

Class01 "1" *-- "many" Class02 : contains

Class03 o-- Class04 : aggregation

Class05 --> "1" Class06

@enduml

You can add an extra arrow pointing at one object showing which object acts on the other object, using < or > at the begin or at the end of the label.

@startuml
class Car

Driver - Car : drives >
Car *- Wheel : have 4 >
Car -- Person : < owns

@enduml

添加方法

为了声明字段(对象属性)或者方法,你可以使用 后接字段名或方法名。

系统检查是否有括号来判断是方法还是字段。

@startuml
Object <|-- ArrayList

Object : equals()
ArrayList : Object[] elementData
ArrayList : size()

@enduml

也可以使用{} 把字段或者方法括起来

注意,这种语法对于类型/名字的顺序是非常灵活的。

@startuml
class Dummy {
  String data
  void methods()
}

class Flight {
   flightNumber : Integer
   departureTime : Date
}
@enduml

你可以(显式地)使用 {field}{method} 修饰符来覆盖解析器的对于字段和方法的默认行为

@startuml
class Dummy {
  {field} A field (despite parentheses)
  {method} Some method
}

@enduml

Adding methods

To declare fields and methods, you can use the symbol : followed by the field's or method's name.

The system checks for parenthesis to choose between methods and fields.

@startuml
Object <|-- ArrayList

Object : equals()
ArrayList : Object[] elementData
ArrayList : size()

@enduml

It is also possible to group between brackets {} all fields and methods.

Note that the syntax is highly flexible about type/name order.

@startuml
class Dummy {
  String data
  void methods()
}

class Flight {
   flightNumber : Integer
   departureTime : Date
}
@enduml

You can use {field} and {method} modifiers to override default behaviour of the parser about fields and methods.

@startuml
class Dummy {
  {field} A field (despite parentheses)
  {method} Some method
}

@enduml

定义可访问性

一旦你定义了域或者方法,你可以定义 相应条目的可访问性质。

Character Icon for field Icon for method Visibility
- private
# protected
~ package private
+ public

@startuml

class Dummy {
 -field1
 #field2
 ~method1()
 +method2()
}

@enduml

你可以采用以下命令停用这些特性 skinparam classAttributeIconSize 0

@startuml
skinparam classAttributeIconSize 0
class Dummy {
 -field1
 #field2
 ~method1()
 +method2()
}

@enduml

Defining visibility

When you define methods or fields, you can use characters to define the visibility of the corresponding item:

Character Icon for field Icon for method Visibility
- private
# protected
~ package private
+ public

@startuml

class Dummy {
 -field1
 #field2
 ~method1()
 +method2()
}

@enduml

You can turn off this feature using the skinparam classAttributeIconSize 0 command :

@startuml
skinparam classAttributeIconSize 0
class Dummy {
 -field1
 #field2
 ~method1()
 +method2()
}

@enduml

抽象与静态

通过修饰符{static}或者{abstract},可以定义静态或者抽象的方法或者属性。

这些修饰符可以写在行的开始或者结束。也可以使用{classifier}这个修饰符来代替{static}.

@startuml
class Dummy {
  {static} String id
  {abstract} void methods()
}
@enduml

Abstract and Static

You can define static or abstract methods or fields using the {static} or {abstract} modifier.

These modifiers can be used at the start or at the end of the line. You can also use {classifier} instead of {static}.

@startuml
class Dummy {
  {static} String id
  {abstract} void methods()
}
@enduml

高级类体

PlantUML默认自动将方法和属性重新分组,你可以自己定义分隔符来重排方法和属性,下面的分隔符都是可用的:-- .. == __.

还可以在分隔符中添加标题:

@startuml
class Foo1 {
  You can use
  several lines
  ..
  as you want
  and group
  ==
  things together.
  __
  You can have as many groups
  as you want
  --
  End of class
}

class User {
  .. Simple Getter ..
  + getName()
  + getAddress()
  .. Some setter ..
  + setName()
  __ private data __
  int age
  -- encrypted --
  String password
}

@enduml

Advanced class body

By default, methods and fields are automatically regrouped by PlantUML. You can use separators to define your own way of ordering fields and methods. The following separators are possible : -- .. == __.

You can also use titles within the separators:

@startuml
class Foo1 {
  You can use
  several lines
  ..
  as you want
  and group
  ==
  things together.
  __
  You can have as many groups
  as you want
  --
  End of class
}

class User {
  .. Simple Getter ..
  + getName()
  + getAddress()
  .. Some setter ..
  + setName()
  __ private data __
  int age
  -- encrypted --
  String password
}

@enduml

备注和模板

模板通过类关键字("<<"和">>")来定义

你可以使用note left of , note right of , note top of , note bottom of这些关键字来添加备注。

你还可以在类的声明末尾使用note left, note right,note top, note bottom来添加备注。

此外,单独用note这个关键字也是可以的,使用 .. 符号可以作出一条连接它与其它对象的虚线。

@startuml
class Object << general >>
Object <|--- ArrayList

note top of Object : In java, every class\nextends this one.

note "This is a floating note" as N1
note "This note is connected\nto several objects." as N2
Object .. N2
N2 .. ArrayList

class Foo
note left: On last defined class

@enduml

Notes and stereotypes

Stereotypes are defined with the class keyword, << and >>.

You can also define notes using note left of , note right of , note top of , note bottom of keywords.

You can also define a note on the last defined class using note left, note right, note top, note bottom.

A note can be also define alone with the note keywords, then linked to other objects using the .. symbol.

@startuml
class Object << general >>
Object <|--- ArrayList

note top of Object : In java, every class\nextends this one.

note "This is a floating note" as N1
note "This note is connected\nto several objects." as N2
Object .. N2
N2 .. ArrayList

class Foo
note left: On last defined class

@enduml

更多注释

可以在注释中使用部分html标签:

  • <b>
  • <u>
  • <i>
  • <s>, <del>, <strike>
  • <font color="#AAAAAA"> or <font color="colorName">
  • <color:#AAAAAA> or <color:colorName>
  • <size:nn> to change font size
  • <img src="file"> or <img:file>: the file must be accessible by the filesystem

你也可以在注释中展示多行。

你也可以在定义的class之后直接使用 note left, note right, note top, note bottom 来定义注释。

@startuml

class Foo
note left: On last defined class

note top of Object
  In java, <size:18>every</size> <u>class</u>
  <b>extends</b>
  <i>this</i> one.
end note

note as N1
  This note is <u>also</u>
  <b><color:royalBlue>on several</color>
  <s>words</s> lines
  And this is hosted by <img:sourceforge.jpg>
end note

@enduml

More on notes

It is also possible to use few html tags like :

  • <b>
  • <u>
  • <i>
  • <s>, <del>, <strike>
  • <font color="#AAAAAA"> or <font color="colorName">
  • <color:#AAAAAA> or <color:colorName>
  • <size:nn> to change font size
  • <img src="file"> or <img:file>: the file must be accessible by the filesystem

You can also have a note on several lines.

You can also define a note on the last defined class using note left, note right, note top, note bottom.

@startuml

class Foo
note left: On last defined class

note top of Object
  In java, <size:18>every</size> <u>class</u>
  <b>extends</b>
  <i>this</i> one.
end note

note as N1
  This note is <u>also</u>
  <b><color:royalBlue>on several</color>
  <s>words</s> lines
  And this is hosted by <img:sourceforge.jpg>
end note

@enduml

链接的注释

在定义链接之后,你可以用 note on link 给链接添加注释

如果想要改变注释相对于标签的位置,你也可以用 note left on linknote right on linknote bottom on link。(对应位置分别在label的左边,右边,下边)

@startuml

class Dummy
Dummy --> Foo : A link
note on link #red: note that is red

Dummy --> Foo2 : Another link
note right on link #blue
this is my note on right link
and in blue
end note

@enduml

Note on links

It is possible to add a note on a link, just after the link definition, using note on link.

You can also use note left on link, note right on link, note top on link, note bottom on link if you want to change the relative position of the note with the label.

@startuml

class Dummy
Dummy --> Foo : A link
note on link #red: note that is red

Dummy --> Foo2 : Another link
note right on link #blue
this is my note on right link
and in blue
end note

@enduml

抽象类和接口

用关键字abstractabstract class来定义抽象类。抽象类用斜体显示。 也可以使用interface, annotationenum关键字。

@startuml

abstract class AbstractList
abstract AbstractCollection
interface List
interface Collection

List <|-- AbstractList
Collection <|-- AbstractCollection

Collection <|- List
AbstractCollection <|- AbstractList
AbstractList <|-- ArrayList

class ArrayList {
  Object[] elementData
  size()
}

enum TimeUnit {
  DAYS
  HOURS
  MINUTES
}

annotation SuppressWarnings

@enduml

Abstract class and interface

You can declare a class as abstract using abstract or abstract class keywords.

The class will be printed in italic.

You can use the interface, annotation and enum keywords too.

@startuml

abstract class AbstractList
abstract AbstractCollection
interface List
interface Collection

List <|-- AbstractList
Collection <|-- AbstractCollection

Collection <|- List
AbstractCollection <|- AbstractList
AbstractList <|-- ArrayList

class ArrayList {
  Object[] elementData
  size()
}

enum TimeUnit {
  DAYS
  HOURS
  MINUTES
}

annotation SuppressWarnings

@enduml

使用非字母字符

如果你想在类(或者枚举)的显示中使用非字母符号,你可以:
  • 在类的定义中使用 as 关键字
  • 在类名旁边加上 ""

@startuml
class "This is my class" as class1
class class2 as "It works this way too"

class2 *-- "foo/dummy" : use
@enduml

Using non-letters

If you want to use non-letters in the class (or enum...) display, you can either :
  • Use the as keyword in the class definition
  • Put quotes "" around the class name

@startuml
class "This is my class" as class1
class class2 as "It works this way too"

class2 *-- "foo/dummy" : use
@enduml

隐藏属性、函数等

通过使用命令“hide/show”,你可以用参数表示类的显示方式。

基础命令是: hide empty members. 这个命令会隐藏空白的方法和属性。

empty members 外,你可以用:
  • empty fields 或者 empty attributes 空属性,
  • empty methods 空函数,
  • fieldsattributes 隐藏字段或属性,即使是被定义了
  • methods 隐藏方法,即使是被定义了
  • members 隐藏字段 方法,即使是被定义了
  • circle 类名前带圈的,
  • stereotype 原型。

同样可以使用 hideshow 关键词,对以下内容进行设置:
  • class 所有类,
  • interface 所有接口,
  • enum 所有枚举,
  • <<foo1>> 实现 foo1 的类,
  • 一个既定的类名。

你可以使用 show/hide 命令来定义相关规则和例外。

@startuml

class Dummy1 {
  +myMethods()
}

class Dummy2 {
  +hiddenMethod()
}

class Dummy3 <<Serializable>> {
String name
}

hide members
hide <<Serializable>> circle
show Dummy1 methods
show <<Serializable>> fields

@enduml

Hide attributes, methods...

You can parameterize the display of classes using the hide/show command.

The basic command is: hide empty members. This command will hide attributes or methods if they are empty.

Instead of empty members, you can use:
  • empty fields or empty attributes for empty fields,
  • empty methods for empty methods,
  • fields or attributes which will hide fields, even if they are described,
  • methods which will hide methods, even if they are described,
  • members which will hide fields and methods, even if they are described,
  • circle for the circled character in front of class name,
  • stereotype for the stereotype.

You can also provide, just after the hide or show keyword:
  • class for all classes,
  • interface for all interfaces,
  • enum for all enums,
  • <<foo1>> for classes which are stereotyped with foo1,
  • an existing class name.

You can use several show/hide commands to define rules and exceptions.

@startuml

class Dummy1 {
  +myMethods()
}

class Dummy2 {
  +hiddenMethod()
}

class Dummy3 <<Serializable>> {
String name
}

hide members
hide <<Serializable>> circle
show Dummy1 methods
show <<Serializable>> fields

@enduml

隐藏类

你也可以使用 show/hide 命令来隐藏类

如果你定义了一个大的!included 文件,且想在文件包含之后隐藏部分类,该功能会很有帮助。

@startuml

class Foo1
class Foo2

Foo2 *-- Foo1

hide Foo2

@enduml

Hide classes

You can also use the show/hide commands to hide classes.

This may be useful if you define a large !included file, and if you want to hide come classes after file inclusion.

@startuml

class Foo1
class Foo2

Foo2 *-- Foo1

hide Foo2

@enduml

泛型(generics)

你可以用 <> 来定义类的泛型。

@startuml

class Foo<? extends Element> {
  int size()
}
Foo *- Element

@enduml

It is possible to disable this drawing using skinparam genericDisplay old command.

Use generics

You can also use bracket < and > to define generics usage in a class.

@startuml

class Foo<? extends Element> {
  int size()
}
Foo *- Element

@enduml

It is possible to disable this drawing using skinparam genericDisplay old command.

指定标记(Spot)

通常标记字符 (C, I, E or A) 用于标记 类(classes), 接口(interface), 枚举(enum)和 抽象类(abstract classes).

但是当你想定义原型时,可以增加对应的单个字符及颜色,来定义自己的标记(spot),就像下面一样:

@startuml

class System << (S,#FF7700) Singleton >>
class Date << (D,orchid) >>
@enduml

Specific Spot

Usually, a spotted character (C, I, E or A) is used for classes, interface, enum and abstract classes.

But you can define your own spot for a class when you define the stereotype, adding a single character and a color, like in this example:

@startuml

class System << (S,#FF7700) Singleton >>
class Date << (D,orchid) >>
@enduml

你可以通过关键词 package 声明包,同时可选的来声明对应的背景色(通过使用html色彩代码或名称)。

注意:包可以被定义为嵌套。

@startuml

package "Classic Collections" #DDDDDD {
  Object <|-- ArrayList
}

package net.sourceforge.plantuml {
  Object <|-- Demo1
  Demo1 *- Demo2
}

@enduml

Packages

You can define a package using the package keyword, and optionally declare a background color for your package (Using a html color code or name).

Note that package definitions can be nested.

@startuml

package "Classic Collections" #DDDDDD {
  Object <|-- ArrayList
}

package net.sourceforge.plantuml {
  Object <|-- Demo1
  Demo1 *- Demo2
}

@enduml

包样式

包可以定义不同的样式。

你可以通过以下的命令来设置默认样式 : skinparam packageStyle,或者对包使用对应的模板:

@startuml
scale 750 width
package foo1 <<Node>> {
  class Class1
}

package foo2 <<Rectangle>> {
  class Class2
}

package foo3 <<Folder>> {
  class Class3
}

package foo4 <<Frame>> {
  class Class4
}

package foo5 <<Cloud>> {
  class Class5
}

package foo6 <<Database>> {
  class Class6
}

@enduml

你也可以参考下面的示例来定义包之间的连线:

@startuml

skinparam packageStyle rectangle

package foo1.foo2 {
}

package foo1.foo2.foo3 {
  class Object
}

foo1.foo2 +-- foo1.foo2.foo3

@enduml

Packages style

There are different styles available for packages.

You can specify them either by setting a default style with the command : skinparam packageStyle, or by using a stereotype on the package:

@startuml
scale 750 width
package foo1 <<Node>> {
  class Class1
}

package foo2 <<Rectangle>> {
  class Class2
}

package foo3 <<Folder>> {
  class Class3
}

package foo4 <<Frame>> {
  class Class4
}

package foo5 <<Cloud>> {
  class Class5
}

package foo6 <<Database>> {
  class Class6
}

@enduml

You can also define links between packages, like in the following example:

@startuml

skinparam packageStyle rectangle

package foo1.foo2 {
}

package foo1.foo2.foo3 {
  class Object
}

foo1.foo2 +-- foo1.foo2.foo3

@enduml

命名空间(Namespaces)

在使用包(package)时(区别于命名空间),类名是类的唯一标识。 也就意味着,在不同的包(package)中的类,不能使用相同的类名。

在那种情况下(译注:同名、不同全限定名类),你应该使用命名空间来取而代之。

你可以从其他命名空间,使用全限定名来引用类, 默认命名空间(译注:无名的命名空间)下的类,以一个“."开头(的类名)来引用(译注:示例中的BaseClass).

注意:你不用显示地创建命名空间:一个使用全限定名的类会自动被放置到对应的命名空间。

@startuml

class BaseClass

namespace net.dummy #DDDDDD {
    .BaseClass <|-- Person
    Meeting o-- Person

    .BaseClass <|- Meeting
}

namespace net.foo {
  net.dummy.Person  <|- Person
  .BaseClass <|-- Person

  net.dummy.Meeting o-- Person
}

BaseClass <|-- net.unused.Person

@enduml

Namespaces

In packages, the name of a class is the unique identifier of this class. It means that you cannot have two classes with the very same name in different packages.

In that case, you should use namespaces instead of packages.

You can refer to classes from other namespaces by fully qualify them. Classes from the default namespace are qualified with a starting dot.

Note that you don't have to explicitly create namespace : a fully qualified class is automatically put in the right namespace.

@startuml

class BaseClass

namespace net.dummy #DDDDDD {
    .BaseClass <|-- Person
    Meeting o-- Person

    .BaseClass <|- Meeting
}

namespace net.foo {
  net.dummy.Person  <|- Person
  .BaseClass <|-- Person

  net.dummy.Meeting o-- Person
}

BaseClass <|-- net.unused.Person

@enduml

自动创建命名空间

使用命令 set namespaceSeparator ??? 你可以自定义命名空间分隔符(为 “.” 以外的字符).

@startuml

set namespaceSeparator ::
class X1::X2::foo {
  some info
}

@enduml

禁止自动创建包则可以使用 set namespaceSeparator none.

@startuml

set namespaceSeparator none
class X1.X2.foo {
  some info
}

@enduml

Automatic namespace creation

You can define another separator (other than the dot) using the command : set namespaceSeparator ???.

@startuml

set namespaceSeparator ::
class X1::X2::foo {
  some info
}

@enduml

You can disable automatic package creation using the command set namespaceSeparator none.

@startuml

set namespaceSeparator none
class X1.X2.foo {
  some info
}

@enduml

棒棒糖 接口

需要定义棒棒糖样式的接口时可以遵循以下语法:
  • bar ()- foo
  • bar ()-- foo
  • foo -() bar

@startuml
class foo
bar ()- foo
@enduml

Lollipop interface

You can also define lollipops interface on classes, using the following syntax:
  • bar ()- foo
  • bar ()-- foo
  • foo -() bar

@startuml
class foo
bar ()- foo
@enduml

改变箭头方向

类之间默认采用两个破折号 -- 显示出垂直 方向的线. 要得到水平方向的可以像这样使用单破折号 (或者点):

@startuml
Room o- Student
Room *-- Chair
@enduml

你也可以通过改变倒置链接来改变方向

@startuml
Student -o Room
Chair --* Room
@enduml

也可通过在箭头内部使用关键字, 例如left, right, up 或者 down,来改变方向

@startuml
foo -left-> dummyLeft
foo -right-> dummyRight
foo -up-> dummyUp
foo -down-> dummyDown
@enduml

You can shorten the arrow by using only the first character of the direction (for example, -d- instead of -down-) or the two first characters (-do-).

Please note that you should not abuse this functionality : Graphviz gives usually good results without tweaking.

Changing arrows direction

By default, links between classes have two dashes -- and are vertically oriented. It is possible to use horizontal link by putting a single dash (or dot) like this:

@startuml
Room o- Student
Room *-- Chair
@enduml

You can also change directions by reversing the link:

@startuml
Student -o Room
Chair --* Room
@enduml

It is also possible to change arrow direction by adding left, right, up or down keywords inside the arrow:

@startuml
foo -left-> dummyLeft
foo -right-> dummyRight
foo -up-> dummyUp
foo -down-> dummyDown
@enduml

You can shorten the arrow by using only the first character of the direction (for example, -d- instead of -down-) or the two first characters (-do-).

Please note that you should not abuse this functionality : Graphviz gives usually good results without tweaking.

And with the left to right direction parameter:

@startuml
left to right direction
foo -left-> dummyLeft
foo -right-> dummyRight
foo -up-> dummyUp
foo -down-> dummyDown
@enduml

“关系”类

你可以在定义了两个类之间的关系后定义一个 关系类 association class 例如:

@startuml
class Student {
  Name
}
Student "0..*" - "1..*" Course
(Student, Course) .. Enrollment

class Enrollment {
  drop()
  cancel()
}
@enduml

也可以用另一种方式:

@startuml
class Student {
  Name
}
Student "0..*" -- "1..*" Course
(Student, Course) . Enrollment

class Enrollment {
  drop()
  cancel()
}
@enduml

Association classes

You can define association class after that a relation has been defined between two classes, like in this example:

@startuml
class Student {
  Name
}
Student "0..*" - "1..*" Course
(Student, Course) .. Enrollment

class Enrollment {
  drop()
  cancel()
}
@enduml

You can define it in another direction:

@startuml
class Student {
  Name
}
Student "0..*" -- "1..*" Course
(Student, Course) . Enrollment

class Enrollment {
  drop()
  cancel()
}
@enduml

Association on same classe

@startuml
class Station {
    +name: string
}

class StationCrossing {
    +cost: TimeInterval
}

<> diamond

StationCrossing . diamond
diamond - "from 0..*" Station
diamond - "to 0..* " Station
@enduml

[Ref. Incubation: Associations]

皮肤参数

skinparam改变字体和颜色。

可以在如下场景中使用:

@startuml

skinparam class {
BackgroundColor PaleGreen
ArrowColor SeaGreen
BorderColor SpringGreen
}
skinparam stereotypeCBackgroundColor YellowGreen

Class01 "1" *-- "many" Class02 : contains

Class03 o-- Class04 : aggregation

@enduml

Skinparam

You can use the skinparam command to change colors and fonts for the drawing.

You can use this command :

@startuml

skinparam class {
BackgroundColor PaleGreen
ArrowColor SeaGreen
BorderColor SpringGreen
}
skinparam stereotypeCBackgroundColor YellowGreen

Class01 "1" *-- "many" Class02 : contains

Class03 o-- Class04 : aggregation

@enduml

Skinned Stereotypes

You can define specific color and fonts for stereotyped classes.

@startuml

skinparam class {
BackgroundColor PaleGreen
ArrowColor SeaGreen
BorderColor SpringGreen
BackgroundColor<<Foo>> Wheat
BorderColor<<Foo>> Tomato
}
skinparam stereotypeCBackgroundColor YellowGreen
skinparam stereotypeCBackgroundColor<< Foo >> DimGray

Class01 <<Foo>>
Class03 <<Foo>>
Class01 "1" *-- "many" Class02 : contains

Class03 o-- Class04 : aggregation

@enduml

Color gradient

It's possible to declare individual color for classes or note using the # notation.

You can use either standard color name or RGB code.

You can also use color gradient in background, with the following syntax: two colors names separated either by:
  • |,
  • /,
  • \,
  • or -
depending the direction of the gradient.

For example, you could have:

@startuml

skinparam backgroundcolor AntiqueWhite/Gold
skinparam classBackgroundColor Wheat|CornflowerBlue

class Foo #red-green
note left of Foo #blue\9932CC
  this is my
  note on this class
end note

package example #GreenYellow/LightGoldenRodYellow {
  class Dummy
}

@enduml

辅助布局

有时候,默认布局并不完美...

你可以使用 together 关键词将某些类进行分组: 布局引擎会尝试将它们捆绑在一起(如同在一个包(package)内)

你也可以使用建立 隐藏 链接的方式来强制布局

@startuml

class Bar1
class Bar2
together {
  class Together1
  class Together2
  class Together3
}
Together1 - Together2
Together2 - Together3
Together2 -[hidden]--> Bar1
Bar1 -[hidden]> Bar2


@enduml

Help on layout

Sometimes, the default layout is not perfect...

You can use together keyword to group some classes together : the layout engine will try to group them (as if they were in the same package).

You can also use hidden links to force the layout.

@startuml

class Bar1
class Bar2
together {
  class Together1
  class Together2
  class Together3
}
Together1 - Together2
Together2 - Together3
Together2 -[hidden]--> Bar1
Bar1 -[hidden]> Bar2


@enduml

拆分大文件

有些情况下,会有一些很大的图片文件。

可以用 page (hpages)x(vpages) 这个命令把生成的图片文件拆分成若干个文件。

hpages 用来表示水平方向页面数, and vpages 用来表示垂直方面页面数。

你也可以使用特定的皮肤设定来给分页添加边框(见例子)

@startuml
' Split into 4 pages
page 2x2
skinparam pageMargin 10
skinparam pageExternalColor gray
skinparam pageBorderColor black

class BaseClass

namespace net.dummy #DDDDDD {
    .BaseClass <|-- Person
    Meeting o-- Person

    .BaseClass <|- Meeting

}

namespace net.foo {
  net.dummy.Person  <|- Person
  .BaseClass <|-- Person

  net.dummy.Meeting o-- Person
}

BaseClass <|-- net.unused.Person
@enduml

Splitting large files

Sometimes, you will get some very large image files.

You can use the page (hpages)x(vpages) command to split the generated image into several files :

hpages is a number that indicated the number of horizontal pages, and vpages is a number that indicated the number of vertical pages.

You can also use some specific skinparam settings to put borders on splitted pages (see example).

@startuml
' Split into 4 pages
page 2x2
skinparam pageMargin 10
skinparam pageExternalColor gray
skinparam pageBorderColor black

class BaseClass

namespace net.dummy #DDDDDD {
    .BaseClass <|-- Person
    Meeting o-- Person

    .BaseClass <|- Meeting

}

namespace net.foo {
  net.dummy.Person  <|- Person
  .BaseClass <|-- Person

  net.dummy.Meeting o-- Person
}

BaseClass <|-- net.unused.Person
@enduml

Extends and implements

It is also possible to use extends and implements keywords.

@startuml
class ArrayList implements List
class ArrayList extends AbstractList
@enduml

Inline style of relations (Linking or arrow)

It's also possible to have explicitly bold, dashed, dotted, hidden or plain relation, links or arrows:

  • without label

@startuml
class foo
foo --> bar
foo -[bold]-> bar1
foo -[dashed]-> bar2
foo -[dotted]-> bar3
foo -[hidden]-> bar4
foo -[plain]-> bar5
@enduml

  • with label

@startuml
class foo
foo --> bar          : ∅
foo -[bold]-> bar1   : bold
foo -[dashed]-> bar2 : dashed
foo -[dotted]-> bar3 : dotted
foo -[hidden]-> bar4 : hidden
foo -[plain]-> bar5  : plain
@enduml

[Adapted from QA-4181]

Change relation, linking or arrow color and style

You can change the color of individual relation or arrows using the following notation: [#color] or #color;line.[bold|dashed|dotted];text:color:

  • old method

@startuml
class foo
foo --> bar
foo -[#red]-> bar1
foo -[#green]-> bar2
foo -[#blue]-> bar3
'foo -[#blue;#yellow;#green]-> bar4
@enduml

  • new method

@startuml
class foo
foo --> bar : normal
foo --> bar1 #line:red;line.bold;text:red  : red bold
foo --> bar2 #green;line.dashed;text:green : green dashed 
foo --> bar3 #blue;line.dotted;text:blue   : blue dotted
@enduml

[See similar feature on deployment]


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